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Örjan Martinsson

Population of Germany

The question "what is Germany" have different answers depending on which time period you are referring to. No German state existed at the time of the birth of Christ but the area populated by Germans had probably a population of four millions. The predecessor of the modern German federation was the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, which also included several other modern states like Austria, Belgium and the Czech republic. The Empire was dissolved 1806 and the German Confederation was created in its place 1815. It was this Confederation that was regarded as Germany during most of the 19th century but the statistics below from that century refer only to the area that became the unified Germany 1871.

Germany
(within historical borders)
Germany
 (within the borders of 1871)
0
1200
1350
1500
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
(4,0)
8,0
12,0
12,0
15,0
10,0
15,0
17,0
25,0
1816
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870

22,4
26.1
29.4
32.6
35.3
37.6
40.8


German "Reich"
(including Saarland 1919-1935)
1871
1880
1890
1900
1910
1913
1922
1930
1933
1939
1939
41.1
45.2
49.4
56.4
64.9
67.0
61.9
65.1
66.0
79.8
87.1





(58.5 within the borders of 1919)



(65.2 without Saarland)
(69.5 within the borders of 1937)
(including Bohemia-Moravia)


West Germany

East Germany
1939
1946
1950
1960
1970
1980
1988
43.0
46.6
50.8
55.4
60.7
61.6
61.4

1939
1946
1950
1960
1970
1980
1988

16,7
18.5
18.4
17.2
17.1
16.7
16.7


Federal Republic of Germany
  1990
2000
2010
79.4
82.8
81.8
 

The population statistics below cover various historical states and modern part states that have existed in Germany.  During the Thirty Years War was Württemberg's population reduced from 450 000 in 1620 to just 100 000 in 1639. Hanover had a population of 200 000 in 1689. Brandenburg-Prussia had a population of 0.6 million in 1648 and it reached 1,5 million in 1700. Prussia expanded its territory greatly during the eighteenth century and had a population of 9,7 millions in 1806. But that year ended in disaster when Prussia was defeated by Napoleon. In the peace of 1807 was Prussia reduced to a territory that had only 4,9 million inhabitants. Prussia's status as a great power was however restored at the Congress in Vienna 1815.

Member States of the German Confederation
(population in thousands)

  1816 1828 1834 1840 1852 1861 1864
Prussia
Bavaria
Saxony
Württemberg
Baden
Hessen-Darmstadt
Thuringian States
Schleswig-Holstein
Other States A
Other States B
10 349
3 655
1 190
1 411
1 006
607
709

2 154
1 491
12 726
4 088
1 373
1 549
1 176
718
802

2 617
1 596
13 510
4 247
1 596
1 570
1 231
761
855

2 793
1 676
14 929
4 371
1 706
1 646
1 296
812
896
849
2 960
1 766
16 935
4 559
1 988
1 733
1 362
854
960
969
3 104
1 918
18 491
4 690
2 225
1 721
1 373
0 857
1 004
1 004
3 193
2 013
19 255
4 807
2 337
1 748
1 432
853
1 035
1 010
3 257
2 068
Germany 22.4 26.6 28.2 30.4 33.4 35.6 37.8

Thuringian States = Sachsen-Weimar, Sachsen-Meiningen, Sachsen-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss-Gera och Reuss-Greiz.
Schleswig-Holstein = The population was 889 in 1845 . The figures for 1852 and 1861 refers to 1855 and 1860 respectively.
Other States A = States that were conquered by Prussia in 1866, i.e. Hanover, Hessen-Kassel, Nassau, Hessen-Homburg and Frankfurt.
Other States  B = Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Anhalt, Waldeck, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe, Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck.
Germany  = The population figures refers to Germany within the borders of 1871 but excluding  Schleswig-Holstein and Alsace-Lorraine.

Part States of the German "Reich"
(population in thousands)

1871 1880 1890 1900 1910 1925 1933 1939
Prussia
Bavaria
Saxony
Württemberg
Baden
Hessen
Mecklenburg
Oldenburg
Brunswick
Bremen
Hamburg
Thuringia
Alsace-Lorraine
Saarland
Other States
24 689
4 863
2 556
1 819
1 462
853
655
317
312
122
339
1 067
1 550

454
27 279
5 285
2 973
1 971
1 570
936
677
337
349
157
454
1 170
1 567

509
29 957
5 595
3 503
2 037
1 658
993
676
355
404
180
623
1 272
1 604

574
34 473
6 176
4 202
2 169
1 868
1 120
711
399
465
225
768
1 420
1 719

653
40 165
6 887
4 807
2 438
2 143
1 282
746
483
494
300
1 015
1 586
1 874

708
38 176
7 380
4 994
2 580
2 312
1 347
784
545
502
339
1 153
1 607

770
691
39 934
7 682
5 197
2 696
2 413
1 429
805
574
513
372
1 218
1 660

812
726
41 334
8 223
5 232
2 897
2 502
1 469
900
578
603
450
1 712
1 744

842
671
Germany 41.1 45.2 49.4 56.4 64.9 63.2 66.0 69.5


Mecklenburg was until 1934 divided in Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Thuringia
was until 1920 divided in the states Sachsen-Weimar, Sachsen-Meiningen, Sachsen-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss-Gera and Reuss-Greiz.
Other States = Anhalt, Waldeck, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe, and with the exception of 1939 Lübeck.

Prussian Provinces
 

 
1864 1871 1880 1890 1900 1910 1910 1925 1933 1939
1.8
1.3
1.5
1.4
0.6
2.0
3.5
2.0
1.0
1.8
1.3
1.6
1.4
0.8
2.0
3.7
2.1
1.0
1.9
1.4
1.7
1.5
1.1
2.3
4.0
2.3
1.1
2.0
1.4
1.8
1.5
1.6
2.5
4.2
2.6
1.2
2.0
1.6
1.9
1.6
1.9
3.1
4.7
2.8
1.4
2.1
1.7
2.1
1.7
2.1
4.1
5.2
3.1
1.6
2.1
0.3

1.7
3.7
2.4
4.3
3.1
1.5
2.3
0.3

1.9
4.0
2.6
4.5
3.3
1.5
2.3
0.3

1.9
4.2
2.7
4.7
3.4
1.6
2.2


2.4
4.3
3.0
4.9
3.6
1.6
1.9
1.7
1.4
3.4
0.1
2.0
1.8
1.4
3.6
0.1
2.1
2.0
1.6
4.1
0.1
2.3
2,4
1,7
4,7
0,1
2,6
3.2
1.9
5.8
0.1
2.9
4.1
2.2
7.1
0.1
3.0
4.1
2.3
6.5
0.1
3.2
4.8
2.5
7.2
0.1
3.4
5.0
2.6
7.6
0.1
3.5
5.2
2.7
7.9
0.1
23.6 24.7 27.3 30.0 34.5
40.2
35.1 38.2 40.0 41.3
East Prussia
West Prussia
Posen
Pomerania
Berlin
Brandenburg
Silesia
Saxony
Schleswig-Holst.
Hannover
Westfalen
Hessen-Nassau
Rheinland
Hohenzollern
Prussia

The statistics refers to the population within the borders of 1871 to 1910, the second series for 1910 and the following series refers to the interwar borders.

Modern German Part States

West Germany

1939 1946 1950 1961 1970 1980 1990 2003
Schleswig-Holstein
Hamburg
Niedersachsen
Bremen
Nordrhein-Westfalen
Hessen
Rheinland-Pfalz
Baden-Württemberg
Bavaria
Saarland
(West-) Berlin
1.6
1.7
4.5
0.6
11.9
3.5
3.0
5.5
7.1
0.9
2.8
2.6
1.4
6.2
0.5
11.7
4.0
2.7
5.8
8.8
0.9
2.0
2.6
1.6
6.8
0.6
13.2
4.3
3.0
6.4
9.2
0.9
2.1
2.3
1.8
6.6
0.7
15.9
4.8
3.4
7.8
9.5
1.1
2.2
2.5
1.8
7.1
0.7
16.9
5.4
3.6
8.9
10.5
1.1
2.1
2.6
1.7
7.2
0.7
17.0
5.6
3.6
9.2
10.9
1.1
1.9
2.6
1.6
7.3
0.7
17.2
5.7
3.7
9.7
11.3
1.1
3.4
2.8
1.7
8.0
0.7
18.1
6.1
4.1
10.7
12.4
1.1
3.4


East Germany


1939

1946

1950

1964

1971

1981

1990

2003
East Berlin
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Brandenburg
Sachsen-Anhalt
Thuringia
Saxony

1.6
1.6
2.5
3.1
2.3
5.7

1.2
2.3
2.6
3.7
2.8
5.8
1.2
2.3
2.7
3.6
2.7
5.9
1.1
2.1
2.7
3.3
2.5
5.5
1.1
2.1
2.7
3.2
2.5
5.3
1.2
2.1
2.7
3.1
2.5
5.1

1.9
2.6
2.9
2.6
4.8

1.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
4.3