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Örjan Martinsson

The Ottoman Empire

The predecessor to the modern republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Empire, was originally a small emirate in the empire of the Ilkhans. The Ottomans expanded its territory during the 14th century and the Ilkhans nominal supremacy seized during the 1330:s. The expansion continued until 1672 when Ottoman Empire reached its maximum extent. The Ottomans then ruled over the middle east, Balkans and large parts of north Africa and central Europe. But the decline was rapid and during the 19th century the Ottoman Empire was called the sick man of Europe. After the disastrous First World War the sultan was deposed and the republic of Turkey was created.

The Ottoman rulers adopted the title Sultan 1383 or earlier. From 1473 they also called them selves emperors, but that title was not widely recognised until 1878. The Ottoman sultans added caliph to their titles in the 18th century.

c. 1300-1326
c. 1326-1360
c. 1360-1389
1389-1402
1402-1421
1402-1403/04
1402-1411
1409-1413
1421-1444
1444-1446
1446-1451
1451-1481
1481-1512
1512-1520
1520-1566
1566-1574
1574-1595
1595-1603
1603-1617
1617-1618
1618-1622
1622-1623
1623-1640
1640-1648
1648-1687
1687-1691
1691-1695
1695-1703
1703-1730
1730-1754
1754-1757
1757-1774
1774-1789
1789-1807
1808-1839
1839-1861
1861-1876
1876
1876-1909
1909-1918
1918-1922

1923-

Osman I
Orhan
Murad I
Beyazit I
Mehmet I Çelebi
(Anatolia) *
Isa Çelebi (Bursa) *
Süleyman Çelebi (Rumelia) *
Musa Çelebi (Rumelia) *
Murad II
Mehmet II Fatih (the Conqueror)
Murad II (restored)
Mehmet II (restored)         1473
Beyazit II
Selim I
Süleyman I Kanuni (the Magnificent) *
Selim II
Murad III
Mehmet III
Ahmed I
Mustafa I
Osman II
Mustafa I (restored)
Murad IV
Ibrahim I
Mehmet IV
Süleyman II
Ahmed II
Mustafa II
Ahmed III
Mahmud I
Osman III
Mustafa III
Abdülhamid I
Selim III
Mahmud II
Abdülmecid I
Abdülaziz
Murad V
Abdülhamid II
Mehmet V
Mehmet VI

Republic of Turkey

* = The empire was 1402 divided between Beyazit I:s sons. The following feuds by the heirs was won by Mehmet I. The names in green text tell what part of the Empire they ruled over.
* =
Süleyman I:s bi-name Kanuni means "lawgiver" but he is called “the Magnificent” in the western world.