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Örjan Martinsson

Andalusia

When the Visigothic kingdom was conquered by Tariq ibn-Ziyad 711 most of Spain became a part of the Arabic Caliphate. An almost 800 year long period with Muslim states in Spain began and the Muslim land became known as "al Andalus" (Andalusia). One member of the deposed Umayyad dynasty conquered Andalusia from the Abbasid caliphs and created the emirate of Córdoba 756 (caliphate from 929). This state became an important cultural and economic centre in the Moslem world and also controlled a large part of North Africa. But in the beginning of the eleventh century it was weakened by civil wars and it collapsed 1031 and was replaced by several petty states, so called taifas. The threat from the Christian kings in the north made them seek protection from the Almoravids who controlled Morocco. The Almoravids united Andalusia 1090 but was 1147 them selves replaced by the Almohads who also came from North Africa. The battle of Navas de Tolosa led however to a crushing defeat for the Almohads against a Christian coalition. Local Arab rulers took over control over Andalusia while the Almohads fled to North Africa. But these petty states were conquered one by one the following decades and only the kingdom of Granada managed to evade conquest by the Christians by allying themselves with Castile and accept their supremacy 1246. Granada would continue to exist as a state for 250 years. But it was conquered by Spain 1492 after a long war started by its king's refusal to the pay tribute.

Emirate of Córdoba

756-788
788-796
796-822
822-852
852-886
886-888
888-912
912- (961)
Abd ar-Rahman I
Hisham I
Al-Hakam I
Abd ar-Rahman II
Muhammad I
Al-Mundhir
Abdallah
Abd ar-Rahman III

Caliphate of Córdoba
 
929-961
961-976
976-1009
1009
1009-1010
1010
1010-1013
1013-1016
1016-1018
1018
1018-1021
1021-1023
1023
1023-1024
1024-1025
1025-1026
1026-1031
1031-1090
Abd ar-Rahman III (same as above)
Al-Hakam II
Hisham II
Muhammad II al-Mahdi
Sulaiman al-Mustain
Muhammad II al-Mahdi (restored)
Hisham II (restored)
Sulaiman al-Mustain (restored)
Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir
Abd ar-Rahman IV
Al-Qasim al-Mamun
Yahya al-Mutali
Al-Qasim al-Mamun (restored)
Abd ar-Rahman V
Muhammad III
Yahya al-Mutali (restored)
Hisham III
Divided into petty states (taifas)
Andalusia is conquered by the Almoravids 1090

Almoravid Empire
 

1056-1087
1061-1106
1106-1143
1143-1145
1145
1145-1147
Abu Bakr al-Lamtuni
Yusuf ibn Tashufin
Ali ibn Yusuf
Tashufin ibn Ali
Ibrahim ibn Tashufin
Ishaq ibn Tashufin
The Almoravid Empire is conquered by the Almohads 1147

Almohad Empire
 

1130-1163
1163-1184
1184-1199
1199-1213
1213-1224
1224
1224-1227
1227-1232
1232-1242
1242-1248
1248-1266
1266-1269
Abd al-Mumin
Abu Yaqub Yusuf I
Yaqub al-Mansur
Muhammad an-Nasir
Yusuf II al-Mustansir
Abd al-Wahid al-Makhlu
Abdallah al-Adil
Idris I al-Mamun
Abd al-Wahid II ar-Rashid
Ali Abul-Hasan as-Said
Umar al-Mustafiq
Abu Dabis
The Almohads' control of Andalusia collapses after the
defeat at Navas de Tolosa 1212 and disappear completely 
1230. In North Africa the Almohad Empire is conquered
by the Marinids 1269. The only Muslim country in
Andalusia to escape conquest by the Christians is the
 newly formed  kingdom of Granada.

Kingdom of Granada
(Castilian fief from 1246)
 

1232-1273
1273-1302
1302-1309
1309-1314
1314-1325
1325-1333
1333-1354
1354-1359
1359-1360
1360-1362
1362-1391
1391-1392
1392-1408
1408-1417
1417-1419
1419-1427
1427-1429
1429-1431
1432
1432-1445
1445
1445-1446
1446-1448
1448-1453
1453-1455
1455-1462
1462
1462-1464
1464-1482
1482-1483
1483-1485
1485-1487
1487-1492
Muhammad I ibn Nasr (sultan to 1238)
Muhammad II al-Faqih
Muhammad III
Nasr
Ismail I
Muhammad IV
Yusuf I
Muhammad V
Ismail II
Muhammad VI
Muhammad V (restored)
Yusuf II
Muhammad VII
Yusuf III
Muhammad VIII
Muhammad IX
Muhammad VIII (restored)
Muhammad IX (restored)
Yusuf IV
Muhammad IX (re-restored)
Muhammad X
Yusuf V
Muhammad X (restored)
Muhammad IX (re-re-restored)
Muhammad XI
Said
Yusuf V (restored)
Said (restored)
Abu l-Hasan Ali
Muhammad XII (Boabdil)
Abu l-Hasan Ali (restored)
Muhammad XIII
Muhammad XII (Boabdil) (restored)

Granada is conquered by Spain 1492