Maps Population Regents
  British Isles
  Iberian Peninsula
  Central Europe

  Eastern Europe


Örjan Martinsson



= Norway   = Denmark   = Sweden   = Finland
Iceland      Swedish Dukes

The three historic kingdoms in Scandinavia can all trace its origins to the Viking Age. The most important kingdom was the small but densely populated Danish state, which dominated Scandinavia’s medieval history. The weakest kingdom was Norway, which already during the Viking Age was periodically ruled by Denmark. In 1319 Norway entered a personal union with Sweden, which later was replaced with a similar union with Denmark. All three Scandinavian kingdoms were united 1389 in the Kalmar Union. Sweden, which had conquered Finland during the 12th and 13th centuries, were often disgruntled with the Kalmar Union which was dominated by Denmark. From the middle of the 15th century a series of Swedish rebellions would make the union more and more theoretical, it was finally dissolved 1521.  Norway would however remain in Danish hands.

Wars between Denmark and Sweden were common and they led to a dramatic shift of the balance of power in Scandinavia during the middle of the 17th century. Sweden expanded its territory around the Baltic coast and conquered important provinces from Denmark and Norway. But Sweden’s age of greatness ended when they were defeated the Great Northern War 1700-1721 and lost all Baltic provinces. Dramatic changes also occurred during the Napoleonic wars when Sweden lost Finland to Russia and later conquered Norway from Denmark. Norway and Finland gained independence in 1905 and 1917. The last changes occurred during World War Two when Iceland completed its journey to independence from Denmark and Finland lost territories to the Soviet Union whereupon Scandinavia received its present borders.