Armies Battles and Sieges Colours and Standards
 
  SWEDEN
 

 




 


 

 
 
  DENMARK-
  NORWAY
 




 

 

 
HOLSTEIN-
  GOTTORP
 

 
PRUSSIA
 
 
  RUSSIA
 



 
 
  SAXONY
 



 

 

Örjan Martinsson

Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein
(two duchies ruled jointly by the Danish king and the duke of  Holstein-Gottorp)

= The Danish king's share
= Holstein-Gottorp's share
= Jointly ruled areas
= Holstein-Sönderborg (no share in the government)

= Kingdom of Denmark

= Prince Bishopric of Lübeck
(ruled by members of the house of Holstein-Gottorp)

The state commonly known as the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp was formed in 1544 as a result of a partition treaty regulating the inheritance of the princes in the Danish royal house. This meant that the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein was to be ruled jointly by the Danish kings and their relatives who belonged to the collateral branch of Holstein-Gottorp (named after Gottorp castle in the city of Schleswig). However, relations between these co-regents deteriorated over time and eventually led to open enmity when Holstein-Gottorp allied itself with Denmark's arch-enemy Sweden.

In 1674, Holstein-Gottorp had a standing army of 3,000 men. But the following year, the duchy was occupied by Denmark, which disbanded its army and used the soldiers to fill gaps in the Danish army. In the Peace of Lund in 1679, the duchy was restored and a new army was formed (with uncertain composition). However, it met the same fate as its predecessor when the duchy was again occupied by Denmark in 1684-1689.

The Holstein army that existed during the Great Northern War could therefore not trace its ancestry further back than the Treaty of Altona on 20 June 1689, which restored Holstein-Gottorp's independence for the second time. This army would then grow to 5,300 men in 1703 and participated in the major battles during the War of the Spanish Succession 1703-1714. However, Holstein-Gottorp's close connections with Sweden would result in the duchy being occupied by Denmark in 1714 and its army returning from the War of the Spanish Succession left homeless. They therefore marched to Swedish Pomerania and went into Swedish service. But when the anti-Swedish coalition captured Stralsund in 1715, the last remnants of this incarnation of the Holstein army disappeared.

Campaigns of the Holstein Army

In Holstein-Gottorp In the Emperor's service In the Maritime Power's Service In Pomerania In Swedish Service
(in Pomerania)
B = Blenheim M = Malplaquet O = Oudenarde R = Ramillies S = Stralsund T = Tönning
  Infantry 1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714
 Leibregiment         T                          

T

S

 Prince Christian August         T           R   O

M

         

S

 Bautzen – Aderkass         T           R   O M            
 Düring                                        
 The Duchess' Life Battalion         T                              
 Vellingk         T                          

T

 
 Liewen         T                              
 Barner – Dobrokoffsky                          

M

           
  Cavalry 1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714
 Holstein Dragoon Regiment                                        
 Trabanten-Garde         T                              
 Dragoner-Garde        

T

         

R

  O M          

S

 The Dragoon Regiment                    

R

  O M            
 The Cavalry Regiment                

B

                   

S

    1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714

The Holstein army had contributed troops to the German Imperial Army in 1693-1695 and then with auxiliary troops in the service of the Maritime Powers in 1696-1697, so they had war experience even before the Great Northern War began. But the real baptism of fire for the Holstein-Gottorp army came when the Danish army invaded their homeland in March 1700. The first drop of blood fell on 22 March when Danish troops entered the city of Schleswig and shot dead a Holstein-Gottorp sergeant. However, the Holstein army had almost completely retreated to the fortress of Tönning and its surroundings. The first serious battles therefore took place when the Danes captured the redoubts that protected the approaches to the peninsula where Tönning is located. After a few days of stubborn defence, the Holsteins abandoned the redoubt in Husum on 12 April. The next day, about 500 men (mostly Swedish soldiers) were forced to surrender when the town of Friedrichstadt was captured by the Danes. The last redoubt at Ramstedt and Schwabstedt was captured on 18 April when its garrison of 300 men surrendered after a very short battle. Then it was time for the main battle when, on 25 April, the Danes began shelling the Tönning fortress, whose garrison had the following strength:

First Siege of Tönning
25 April – 1 June 1700
(15 April – 22 May according to Swedish Calendar)

  Officers

NCOs and Privates

Leibregiment
Prince Christian August
Bautzen
The Duchess' Life Battalion
Vellingk
Liewen

19
18
20
9
12
15

516
575
525
377
593
592

Sum Infantry

93

3 178
Cavalry ca 400
Artillery ca 50

After a month of fierce fighting, Tönning was close to falling, but when news came that a combined Swedish-Lüneburg relief army had crossed the Holstein border, the Danes had to call off the siege. Only a small force was left behind to block Tönning while the main Danish army marched south on 1 June to meet the new threat. Thereafter, the war in Holstein-Gottorp entered a calm phase that lasted until the landing at Humlebæk which forced the Danes to conclude the peace of Traventhal on 18 August.

After the brief war in 1700, the Holstein army gained further battle experience by contributing over 3,000 men as auxiliaries in the War of the Spanish Succession. Holstein regiments therefore took part in the famous battles of Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde and Malplaquet.

While the greater part of the Holstein army was still fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1713 the Danes launched another siege of Tönning. On February 15, the Holstein government had agreed to let in Magnus Stenbock's Swedish army, which sought protection from a combined Danish-Russian-Saxon army. However, it was only at the end of April that all parts of the now roughly 10,000 strong Swedish army were gathered inside Tönning's fortress. The anti-Swedish coalition began the actual siege by starting to dig trenches on the night of 5 May. The Swedes, who were hampered by a lack of provisions, surrendered on May 17 and began the evacuation of its troops from the fortress on 20 May. However, the Holstein troops remained and wanted to maintain control of their fortress. This was accepted by the Russians and Saxons but not by the Danes who saw the Holstein government's breach of neutrality as a pretext to occupy all of Holstein-Gottorp. However, the surrender conditions had meant that the Danes had promised not to shell Tönning and that the trenches would be destroyed. A regular siege of the Holstein garrison in Tönning could therefore not be carried out, but instead there was a blockade where the Danes tried to starve the Holstein force out.

Second Siege of Tönning
4 May 1713 – 8 February 1714
(23 April – 28 January according to the Julian Calendar)
 

Leibregiment
Vellingk
Artillery

1 100
600
100

SUM 1 800

In addition to Tönning's garrison of 1,800 men, there had been 150 men in the Gottorp castle which was taken before Tönning and in addition there were 50 men on the island of Heligoland which was conquered by the Danes in August 1714.

The siege of Tönning was very long and meant great suffering for both soldiers and civilians. On 12 January 1714, only 900 men remained of the garrison of which only a third were healthy, 300 men had deserted and the rest had died. Over 700 civilians had died out of a total population of about 3,000. On 8 February the garrison, granted free passage to Eutin, surrendered. The city of Eutin was the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck which was ruled by the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp's uncle.

The Holstein regiments that had participated in the War of the Spanish Succession were thus homeless when they ended their service with the Maritime Powers on 1 September 1713. But the Swedish fortress of Stettin had been subjected to a Russian siege in August-September 1713, which was ended on the condition that the Swedes handed over the fortress to two neutral powers who would manage it for the remainder of the Great Northern War (a so-called sequester). These neutral states were Holstein-Gottorp and Prussia. Two of the returning infantry regiments were therefore garrisoned in Stettin in January 1714. But as Prussia wanted to keep Stettin forever, they joined Sweden's enemies and the two Holstein regiments were disarmed and taken prisoner in April 1715. In total, 34 officers and 698 NCOs and privates were captured by the Prussians. On July 5 of the same year, however, 161 Holstein soldiers were exchanged for Prussians who had been captured by the Swedes. These Holstein soldiers then joined the other Holstein regiments from the War of the Spanish Succession which had already entered Swedish service in May 1714.

The remainder of Tönning's and Heligoland's garrisons were forced by the Danes in September 1714 to leave Eutin and these also then entered Swedish service. These troops, which had consisted of about 950 survivors from Tönningen and Heligoland, had then shrunk to only 26 artillerymen (of which three officers) and 112 infantrymen (of which 15 officers) and a six-man strong staff.

All in all, about 1,700 Holsteiners went into Swedish service and they participated in the defence of Pomerania in 1715 and at least the cavalry is likely to have fought in the Battle of Stresow. But when Stralsund surrendered in December, even this last remnant of the Holstein army disappeared.

Holstein Army Organisation

When Holstein-Gottorp's independence was restored with the Treaty of Altona on 20 June 1689, the duke still had no troops of his own. At first, therefore, troops from Sweden and Braunschweig-Lüneburg (future Hanover) were put in as a garrison as protection against Danish aggression. These consisted of 3,400 men and were divided into 1,962 Swedish infantry (18 companies), 509 Swedish cavalry (8 companies) and 901 Lüneburg infantry (8 companies). In the spring of 1690 most of this force left Holstein-Gottorp who had now created an army of his own.

The newly formed Holstein army in 1690-1695 had an official strength of 2,390 men divided into twenty infantry companies of 110 men each and two cavalry companies of 65 men each, as well as an artillery and fortification staff of 60 men. But only eight of these companies were recruited by Holstein-Gottorp itself. Sweden had left behind eight companies that went into Holstein service and a further six companies were transferred from Brandenburg. The infantry companies were organised into two equal-sized regiments, but this division was mostly theoretical because in practice the army consisted of independent companies that were distributed over two garrison districts, a larger one in Tönningen and a smaller one in Gottorp.

During the War of the League of Augsburg, Holstein-Gottorp contributed troops to the German Imperial Army in 1693-1695. These consisted of a five-company strong battalion under the command of lieutenant colonel von Bülow (which, however, was subordinate to a Lüneburg corps) and fought in the Spanish Netherlands. This reduction in the strength of the army in Holstein-Gottorp was compensated by the lease of a dragoon regiment of six companies (500 men) from Denmark in September 1694 for a period of three years

In 1695, however, Holstein-Gottorp's relations with Denmark deteriorated sharply, and at the end of the year an extensive rearmament of the Holstein army began, which was completed in the spring of 1696. A battalion had been borrowed from Sweden in 1695 and another 26 new companies were recruited so that the Holstein army doubled and became roughly 5,000 men strong. It was only now that an actual division of the army into regiments was put into practice so that it consisted of four infantry regiments plus a Swedish battalion and two dragoon regiments (one of which was actually Danish) and an independent cavalry company. Three regiments were however leased to the Maritime Powers (England and the Netherlands) as an auxiliary corps in the War of the League of Augsburg in 1696-1697, but these returned to Holstein-Gottorp during the winter months.

Although the conflict with Denmark escalated in 1697 when Danish troops entered Holstein territory in May and razed its fortifications, the size of the Holstein army was nevertheless reduced. The Danish dragoon regiment was returned the same year and the following year one of the infantry regiments that had been part of the Maritime Powers' Auxiliary Corps was disbanded, while the size of the companies was reduced. The total strength was therefore reduced to 3,360 men. But in the summer of 1699 the army was reinforced with three more Swedish battalions so that it once again had an official strength of just over 5,000 men when the Danes started the war in March 1700. The three remaining Holstein infantry regiments had the following organisation in 1699:

Infantry Organisation in 1699

Regimental Staff Musketeer Companyi Grenadier Company
1 Colonel (none in Leibregiment)
1 Lieutenant Colonel
(2 in Leibregiment)
1 Major
1 Judge-advocate (Auditeur)
1 Adjutant
1 Regimental Surgeon
4 Surgeon's assistants
1 Regimental drummer
6 Oboists
1 Provost (Gevaldiger)
2 Provost's assistants (stokkeknækte)
  1 Captain
1 Lieutenant
  1 Captain
1 Lieutenant
2 Sergeants
2 NCOs
4 Sergeants
2 Drummers 2 Pipers
2 Drummers
4 Corporals
6 Gefreiters
72 Privates
4 Corporals
48 Privates
Sum: 20 men
Each regiment also had 2-4 ensigns
Sum: 90 men
(Rank-and-file: 82 men)
Sum: 62 men
(Rank-and-file: 52 men)

Leibregiment had eight musketeer companies and two grenadier companies (868 men), Prince Christian August's Regiment hade seven musketeer companies and one grenadier company (711 men). Bautzen's Regiment had only eight musketeer companies (720 men).

After the peace of Traventhal on 18 August 1700, two of the Swedish battalions (Wismar governor's regiment) returned to Wismar. However, the peace had confirmed Holstein-Gottorp's right to have its own army and set a cap of 6,000 men for it, which then became a goal Holstein-Gottorp tried to achieve. In 1701-1702, a new rearmament of the Holstein army was therefore begun, which was expanded by three regiments, two of which were mounted, so that it became 5,400 strong. The intention was probably to participate in the Great Northern War with an auxiliary corps in Swedish service. But the duke's death at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702 and the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession in the same year changed these plans. Instead, Holstein-Gottorp contributed a cavalry regiment to the German Imperial Army and leased an auxiliary corps to the Maritime Powers consisting of two dragoon regiments and two infantry regiments. The agreement with the Maritime Powers also involved a reorganisation of the auxiliary corps regiments, which also affected the other regiments because they had to give up manpower in order for the auxiliary corps to reach the agreed size of 2,730 men.

Organisation for Regiments in the Maritime Power's Service in 1703

Dragoon Regiment: Staff 14 men, 8 companies with 64 men each (of which three officers). In total: 526 men.
Infantry Regiment: Staff 14 men, 1 grenadier- and 10 musketeer companies with 75 men each (of which three officers).
In total 839 men.

Remaining in the homeland were two infantry regiments as well as the two Swedish battalions and the cavalry company. The latter, however, had been reduced to just 30 men in 1703 and was disbanded two years later. One of the infantry regiment was transferred in 1709 to the Maritime Power's auxiliary corps, while the two dragoon regiments in this were merged in 1710.

After the death of Duchess Hedvig Sofia on 22 December 1708, the Holstein-Gottorp government began a reduction in the size of the regiments in order to save money. When the reorganisation was completed, the part of Holstein-Gottorp's army that remained at home had a strength of 2,879 men. But this strength was further reduced, as previously mentioned, by another regiment (611 men) being leased to the Maritime Powers in April 1709. However, a power struggle within the government led to its leading man Magnus von Wedderkop being imprisoned in December 1709 and replaced by Georg Heinrich von Görtz with the support of Commander-in-Chief Gerhard von Dernath. The latter was a proponent of a 6,000-strong army and saw to it that the troop reduction was reversed.

The troop reduction had not affected the two Swedish battalions as these were paid for by the Swedish crown (more specifically the General Government of Bremen-Verden). However, the uncertain situation that arose when Denmark declared war on Sweden in 1709 resulted in the battalions being transferred to Holstein pay in 1710 so that Denmark would not be able to use them as a pretext to invade Holstein-Gottorp. However, this did not prevent one of these battalions from returning to Swedish service in 1711 so that Sweden could reinforce its garrison in Stade.

When the Holstein army was drawn into the Great Northern War again in 1713, its army would shrink rapidly as a result of the setbacks until it was disbanded entirely in December 1715.

Commander-in-Chief of the Holstein Army

1690-1697
1697-1706
1706-1715
Otto Johann von Grothusen
Johan Gabriel Banér
Gerhard von Dernath

Uniforms in General and Colours and Standards

Colonel's colours for Holstein infantry regiments.
The one to the right is depicted in Höglund/Sallnäs' book and the one to the left is described in the text of the same book.

The Holstein infantry wore red coats and the cavalry blue coats with a distinctive colour on facings for each regiment. There is no information about the cut of the uniforms in my sources a part from Knüppel who mentions that "the cut and colours (blue-red) were probably of the Swedish manner". However, I have chosen to depict the Holstein regiments with uniforms of a more generic style, although still approaching the Swedish style with slightly smaller cuffs and turnbacks for at least the cavalry. Since the uniform descriptions (taken from Höglund unless otherwise stated) do not explicitly mention a collar on the coat, I have omitted it even though it was standard in the Swedish army. In addition, I have provided the cuffs with buttons, which was not the case for Swedish regiments.

Holstein officers wore a red and white sash as a sign of rank, but when in the Maritime Power's service this sash may have been either orange (Netherlands) or red (England). Swedish officers did not wear a sash.

In common with most armies, the regiments had a white colonel's colour/standard and company colours/standards in the regimental colour. However, note that Holstein infantry regiments had no more than 2-4 ensigns in 1699. This may indicate that there were only two colours per battalion as it was the ensign's task to carry the colour. The colours of the regular infantry regiments would anyway have the Holstein cross flag in the upper inner corner, the coat of arms of Holstein in the centre and flames in the corners. According to Höglund's text, the colour of the flames should have been orange for the colonel's colour and light blue for the company colours. The pictures in the same book, however, show light blue flames for both the colonel's (Bautzen's regiment) and the company colour (Prince Christian August's regiment). Höglund's text really only describes the flames for Bautzen's regiment, which had an orange distinctive colour, but states "same as above" for the colours of Prince Christian August and Dobrokoffsky. To further complicate matters, Steve Kling has depicted the Holstein flags in a way that deviates greatly from Höglund/Sallnäs's book.

 

According to Höglund/Sallnäs

According to Steve Kling
(images only and no text description)

Company Colour's Colour Symbols Company Colour Deviations from Höglund/Sallnäs
Leibregiment White Crowned CF in mirror monogram. In the corners crowns between palm branches. the field strewn with open crowns.

Six "F's" in a cross pattern where half are mirrored. Around the text "CUM CONSTANTIA ET LABORE". Crowns above the F on each side and blue corner flames
Bautzen Orange Holstein cross flag in upper inner corner. Holstein's coat of arms in metal and colours, light blue corner flames on the company colour and orange on the colonel's colour.

Same as Höglund/Sallnäs
Dobrokoffsky Light grey Same as above.

Light blue company colours with orange corner flames. The colonel's colour has light blue corner flames.
Prince Christian August Blue Same as above.

Yellow company colour. Extra symbols around Holstein's coat of arms that I cannot decipher (CA monogram?)
Dragoner-Garde White with silver fringe Coat of arms of Holstein

Red company colour and gold fringe on all colours.
The Dragoon Regiment Blue with fringe (of gold?) CF monogram below ducal crown, all in gold.

Same as Höglund/Sallnäs
The Cavalry Regiment Blue with gold fringe CF monogram under ducal crown and motto "CUM CONSTANTIA ET LABORE" in gold.

No motto.

The biggest difference between Höglund/Sallnäs and Kling is the Leibregiment's colour, which has no similarities at all. But since Höglund/Sallnäs' colour has a CF monogram, it must refer to the time 1702-1715 when Carl Friedrich was duke, while the letter F which appears frequently in Kling's colour should mean that it is from the reign of Friedrich IV 1694-1702 . The same explanation could be the reason for the differences for the Dragoner-Garde's colours and possibly also Prince Christian August's regiment. However, this is a less likely explanation for the differences for Dobrokoffsky's regiment, which was raised in 1701. It is possible that this has been a misunderstanding which has caused light grey to become light blue instead.

Artillery

In 1699, the artillery consisted of 56 men distributed at Tönningen (48) and Gottorp (8 men). In 1703, the number had increased to about 140 men. and in 1709 it consisted of 133 men. When the Holstein army was forced to leave Eutin in September 1714, only 26 artillerymen remained, of which three were officers

According to Steve Kling, who is referencing Augustus Kuhn, the artillerymen had a hat with white lace, a red neckcloth, grey coats with pewter buttons and grey cuffs and stockings, and a leather waistcoat and leather trousers.

Leibregiment zu Fuss
(Life Regiment on Foot)

1695 Christopher von der Meden
Thielemann Andreas Bergholtz
1701
1706
1708
1714

Johan Gabriel Banér
Valentin Johan Daldorf
Joachim von Grumbkow
A. Koskull

Formed in 1695, it initially consisted of two independent battalions under the command of lieutenant colonels von der Meden and Bergholtz. Each battalion had one grenadier and four musketeer companies (a total of 868 men). In 1703 it transferred men to the regiments that went into Dutch service and subsequently came to consist of one grenadier and eight musketeer companies.

Daldorf, who became its colonel in 1706, took part in Charles XII's campaign, which meant that the actual regimental commander was lieutenant colonel Azarias Franz Hercules.

A further reduction in the regiment's strength took place in early 1709 when it was reduced to six companies (611 men in total). At the end of the same year, however, there was a change of power in Holstein-Gottorp's government which resulted in the Leibregiment being expanded to 12 companies of 100 men each.

After Tönning's capitulation, the remaining Holstein troops (about 900 men) were taken to the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck. This force, which consisted mainly of the Leibregiment, had by September 1714 shrunk to only 26 artillerymen and 112 infantrymen. In the same month, the Danes forced them out of the prince-bishopric and they instead marched to Pomerania where they entered Swedish service. In October 1715 the Leibregiment had an effective strength of 19 officers, 40 non-commissioned officers, 8 games and 149 privates. These were then captured when Stralsund surrendered in December 1715.

Uniforms

Its uniform is completely unknown and Höglund has specified two different speculative uniforms in part 1 and part 2 of his uniform trilogy. First he stated that it should have been similar to the Dragoner-Garde's uniforms but with a hat instead of a bearskin cap (that is, blue coat with red flaps). He then changed his mind and wrote in part 2 "red with white spreads?". Personally, I think that the Dragoner-Garde uniforms can still be a good guide because, according to Steve Kling, both units had red company colours (before they got Höglund's white colours?). This could indicate red facings. The Dragoner-Garde also had a red coat before 1702 and then a blue coat, and perhaps the Leibregiment also changed its coat colour.

Prince Christian August's Infantry Regiment
(Also called the Administrator's Regiment from 1702)

?
1703
1714

Otto Reventlow (killed in 1700)
Hans Albrecht von Barner
 J. W. Delwig

Formed in 1695 and was in 1696-1697 a part of the auxiliary corps in the service of the Maritime Powers. At home in Holstein, in 1699 it consisted of one grenadier and seven musketeer companies (711 men in total). It was expanded with three musketeer companies in 1703 when it entered Dutch service (in total 839 men). When the War of the Spanish Succession ended, the regiment left Dutch service and was transferred to Swedish Pomerania in May 1714 where it entered Swedish service. It then consisted of 430 men distributed among six companies. By October 1715 it had an effective strength of 19 officers, 28 non-commissioned officers, 18 musicians and 515 privates. The regiment was then captured when Stralsund surrendered in December 1715.

In the battle of Malplaquet in 1709, a Holstein regiment named Grothusen took part. By the method of exclusion, this must have been Prince Christian August's regiment, although Höglund has listed a Grothusen as commander of Bautzen's regiment from 1708 (which also took part in the battle but was named Hercules).

Uniforms

Privates: black hat without lace, red coat with pewter buttons, blue lining and cuffs, red vest, leather breeches, white stockings, white neckcloth.
Musicians: as privates, but with red breeches and blue lace on cuffs, pocket flaps, edges and sleeves.
NCOs: as privates but with silver lace on hat and cuffs.
Officers: as privates but with red breeches, red-white sash, hat with gold lace, gilded buttons and button holes, seams and pocket flaps decorated with gold lace.

What is reported above is mainly Höglund's general descriptions for the Holstein infantry regiments from part 2 of his trilogy. However, in Part 1 which only describes the uniform of one Holstein infantry regiment, namely this one, he specifies the red colour as carmine and states that the stockings were grey. For the drummers, he then wrote that they probably had silver buttons.

Bautzen's
Infantry Regiment

1695
1701
1702
1709
1709

Daniel von Bautzen
Magnus Blixencrone
Carl Johan Aderkass
Azarias Franz Hercules
Rumohr

Formed in 1695 and consisted of 8 musketeer companies (720 men in total). It was expanded with one grenadier and two musketeer companies in 1703 when it entered Dutch service (in total 839 men). When the War of the Spanish Succession had ended, the regiment left Dutch service and was transferred to Stettin in January 1714 which was then to be administered jointly by Holstein-Gottorp and Prussia. It then consisted of only about 330 men distributed among six companies. In April 1715 the regiment was disarmed by the Prussians who took them prisoner.

Uniforms

Privates: black hat without lace, red coat with pewter buttons, orange lining and cuffs, red vest, leather breeches, white stockings, white neckcloth.
Musicians: as privates, but with red breeches and orange lace on cuffs, pocket flaps, edges and sleeves.
NCOs: as privates but with silver lace on hat and cuffs.
Officers: as privates but with red breeches, red-white sash, hat with gold lace, gilded buttons and button holes, seams and pocket flaps decorated with gold lace.

Düring's Infantry Regiment

Formed in 1695 and included in the auxiliary corps that was in the service of the Maritime Powers in 1696-1697. Returned to Holstein-Gottorp, it was disbanded in 1698. Uniform and colour unknown


Company colour according to Höglund/Sallnäs. The colonel's colour was the same but white instead of red

The Duchess' Life Battalion
(Wismar Garrison Regiment)

Philip Christian Mardefelt (1699)
Bendix Friedrich von Rumohr (1709)

Five musketeer companies (545 men) belonging to Wismar Garrison Regiment and loaned to Holstein-Gottorp in 1695. Got its name in 1698 when Charles XII's sister Hedvig Sofia married Duke Friedrich IV. Was paid for by Sweden until 1710. Again in Swedish service when it was transferred to Stade's garrison in July 1711 and ended up in Danish captivity when this fortress fell in September 1712.

Regimental staff: 1 judge-advocate, 1 chaplain, 1 battalion clerk, 1 provost. Musketeer company: 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 2 sergeants, 2 non-commissioned officers, 2 drummers, 6 corporals, 8 gefreiters, 86 privates (the colonel's company also had an ensign).

Wismar Garrison Regiment in 1703 and 1706 had a uniform that looked like the picture on the left. However, the vest's colour is a guess as information about it is missing.

Vellingk's Battalion
(Stade Garrison Regiment)

Six companies (in total 642 men) under the command of Bogislaw von Rosen in 1709.

Was transferred to Holstein-Gottorp from Swedish service in July 1699 but was paid for by Sweden until 1710. Seems to have been disbanded after the capitulation in Tönning in 8 February 1714 (merged with the Leibregiment?)

The pictures show how the uniforms of the Stade garrison regiment looked in 1695, respectively 1704 and 1710. The colour of the vest is not mentioned in 1695, while the hat lace and the collar of the cloak are not mentioned for the later uniform. However, the Provost had such lace in 1704/1710 so it seems that the regiment did not change these details. The provost's buttonholes were also white, and I guess that also applied to the privates.

Liewen's
Infantry Regiment

(Wismar Governor's Regiment)

The entire regiment was loaned to Holstein-Gottorp in July 1699 under the command of lieutenant colonel Hempel. They formed the majority of a force of between 500 and 600 men defending the town of Friedrichstadt and which surrendered to the Danes in April 1700. The Danes then also captured two of its colours which were described as blue and white "rutenweise".

The regiment returned to Wismar after the Peace of Traventhal. It was then captured when Wismar surrendered in April 1716.

The uniform on the left is reported for the year 1699.

Dobrokoffsky's
Infantry Regiment

1701
?

Hans Albrecht von Barner
Rudolf von Dobrokoffsky

One grenadier and nine musketeer companies (mustered 20 December 1701). Transferred men to the regiments which went into Dutch service in 1703 and then came to consist of one grenadier and eight musketeer companies. In 1709 the regiment was reorganised into six companies (a total of 611 men). Commanded by Azarias Franz Hercules, it entered Dutch service in April 1709. When the War of the Spanish Succession had ended, the regiment left Dutch service and was transferred to Stettin in January 1714 which was then to be administered jointly by Holstein-Gottorp and Prussia. It then consisted of only about 330 men distributed among six companies. In April 1715 the regiment was disarmed by the Prussians who took them prisoner.

Uniforms

Privates: black hat without lace, red coat with pewter buttons, light grey lining and cuffs, red vest, leather breeches, white stockings, white neckcloth.
Musicians: as privates, but with red breeches and light grey lace on cuffs, pocket flaps, edges and sleeves.
NCOs: as privates but with silver lace on hat and cuffs.
Officers: as privates but with red breeches, red-white sash, hat with gold lace, gilded buttons and button holes, seams and pocket flaps decorated with gold lace.

Steve Kling states that the regimental colour was white (instead of Höglund's light grey).

Holstein
Dragoon Regiment

Christian Ditlev Reventlow

A Danish regiment which was raised in 1685 and which in 1694 was transferred to Holstein-Gottorp for a period of three years. Back in Danish service, it was then disbanded in 1701 and its men were transferred to Livregiment Dragoons. The regimental commander Reventlow was the same man who in 1709-1710 led the Danish army during the campaign in Scania.

The uniform is described as a red coat with green facings.

Trabanten-Garde
(Drabant Guards)

Major Behr

Formed in 1695, it consisted in 1699 of 1 major, 2 lieutenants, 2 NCOs, 1 farrier, 3 first corporals, 3 second corporals and 72 trabants (in total 84 men). In 1703, Trabanten-Garde consisted of 114 men, which, however, was reduced to only 30 men at the end of the year and was completely disbanded two years later.

The uniform is unknown, but Höglund speculates that they may have resembled the Swedish Drabant Corps. Blue, white and red were Holstein-Gottorp's colours and it is likely that a high-status unit such as this should have included them. Compare with the Dragoner-Garde.


Uniform before 1702


Uniform after 1702

Dragoner-Garde
(Dragoon Guards)

1703 Gerhard von Dernath (von der Nath)

Was recruited during the winter of 1695-96 to form part of the auxiliary corps in the service of the Maritime Powers during the War of the League of Augsburg.

Consisted of 6 companies in 1699 and a staff which included: 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant colonel, 1 major, 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 judge-advocate, 1 regimental surgeon with 2 assistants, 1 kettle-drummer, 6 oboists, 1 provost with assistant. Each company consisted of 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 1 NCO, 3 corporals, 1 farrier, 2 drummers and 40 dragoons (exceptions were the lieutenant-colonel's and major's companies, which lacked captains). The total strength was 315 men.

It was reorganised and increased to 8 companies in 1703 when it entered English service. When the War of the Spanish Succession ended, the regiment left English service and was transferred in two instalments (January and May 1714) to Swedish Pomerania, where it went into Swedish service in May. The regiment then consisted of 12 companies with a total of 770 men (Baudissin's dragoon regiment had been merged with the Dragoner-Garde in 1710). The regiment had an effective strength of 562 privates in June 1715 and was captured in December 1715 when Stralsund surrendered.

Uniforms

Privates: bearskin cap, blue coat with pewter buttons, red lining and cuffs, white lace on edges, cuffs, buttonholes and pocket flaps, blue vest, straw-coloured breeches, blue cloak with red collar, blue shabraque and pistol covers with white edge.
Drummers: hat with silver lace and red and white pom-pom, blue coat richly decorated with silver lace in seams, edges, cuffs, pocket flaps and on sleeves, blue vest with silver lace and leather breeches.
NCOs: bearskin cap, blue coat with silver buttons, red lining and cuffs,
white lace on edges, cuffs, buttonholes, galloons and pocket flaps, blue vest with silver lace, leather breeches.
Officers: hat with silver lace or bearskin cap with red tassel, blue coat with silver buttons, red lining and cuffs, richly decorated with silver lace on edges, seams, buttonholes and on pocket flaps, white neckcloth, blue vest with silver lace, blue breeches, blue cloak with red collar furnished with silver lace, blue shabraque and pistol covers with silver lace.

The above-mentioned information from Höglund apparently applies to the period 1702-1715. Prior to this they had (according to Steve Kling referencing Augustus Kuhn and Robert Hall) a uniform consisting of a red coat with pewter buttons and red facings, leather-coloured breeches and a red shabraque with white trim.

The Dragoon Regiment

1701
1702

Thielemann Andreas von Bergholtz
Wulf Heinrich von Baudissin

Six companies (mustered 21 July 1701). Expanded with two companies in 1703 when it entered English service (total strength 526 men). It was disbanded in 1710 and merged with the Dragoner-Garde

Uniforms

Privates: black hat, blue coat with pewter buttons, blue lining and cuffs, blue vest, leather breeches. Blue shabraque with white edge.
Drummers: all blue uniform, silver lace and red and white plume on hat.
NCOs: as the privates but with silver lace on hats and cuffs.
Officers: all blue uniform with silver buttons and silver lace on hat, cuffs, edges, pocket flaps and in the seams.

The Cavalry Regiment

1703
ca 1707
1708
1708
1709
1714
1715

Heinrich von der Osten
Otto Friederich von Görtz
Johann Dietrich Grothusen (died in 1708)
Azarias Franz Hercules (killed in 1709)
?
Hans Julius von Kirchbach
O. F. von Düring

Heinrich von der Osten signed a contract in 1701 to raise a dragoon regiment, but the six companies were not fully recruited until 1703 and then it was designated as a cavalry regiment. Although later on, this regiment would sometimes be called a dragoon regiment.

As early as 1703, two companies were transferred to Baudisson's Dragoon Regiment, which was reinforced to be sent as auxiliary troops to the Maritime Powers. The remaining four companies of 55 men each and the staff of 7 men (a total of 227 men) became in July Holstein-Gottorp's contribution to the German Imperial Army during the War of the Spanish Succession.

Two independent dragoon companies (of three officers and 57 men) were raised in 1704 under the command of Otto Friedrich von Görtz, but they were incorporated into von der Osten's regiment in 1706, which was not long afterwards bought by Görtz. It then came to consist of 342 men. The regiment was again at home in 1706-1708 and at the end of 1709. In the latter year it was temporarily reduced to four companies but when the War of the Spanish Succession ended it consisted of six companies with a total of about 340 men. It was transferred to Swedish Pomerania in May 1714 and entered Swedish service. It had an effective strength of 335 privates in June 1715 and was captured in December 1715 when Stralsund surrendered.

Uniforms

Privates: hat without lace, blue coat with pewter buttons, paille-yellow lining, cuffs, vest and breeches. blue cloak with paille-yellow collar, blue shabraque and pistol covers with paille-yellow edge.
NCOs: hat med silver lace, white neckcloth, blue coat with pewter buttons, paille-yellow lining, cuffs, vest and breeches, silver lace on cuffs (vest and breeches of leather or cloth),  blue shabraque  and pistol covers with paille-yellow edge.
Trumpeters: like NCOs but with silver lace on the coat's sleeves.

According to Steve Kling, Augustus Kuhn specified blue facing colour instead of paille-yellow (an earlier uniform?).

References

Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721 - Fanor och uniformer. Karlstad (2000)
Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721, II. Karlstad (2003)
Kling, Steve. The Army of Holstein-Gottorp in the Great Northern War. (article in GNW Compendium) St. Louis (2015)
Knüppel, Günter. Das Heerwesen des Fürstentums Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf 1600-1715. Neumünster (1972)
MacDowall, Simon. Malplaquet 1709 - Marlborough's Bloodiest Battle. Oxford (2020
McNally, Michael. Ramillies 1706 - Marlborough's tactical masterpiece. Oxford (2014)
Tincey, John. Blenheim 1704 - The Duke of Marlborough's Masterpiece. London (2004)
Tuxen, A. P. - With-Seidelin C. L. Bidrag til den store nordiske krigs historie. Copenhagen (1899-1934)