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Örjan Martinsson

Bulgaria

The Bulgars were originally a Turkish people, which emigrated to the present day Bulgaria during the 7th century and created an independent state there. With time the Bulgars were assimilated with the Slavic population, but they continued to call them selves Bulgars, which also became the name of the Slavic population. The title of the first Bulgarian rulers was “khan” in the Turkic language and “Knez” in the Slavic language. 913 the Bulgarian rulers adopted the title “tsar”, which was the Slavic word for emperor.

1018-1185 was Bulgaria conquered by the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans conquered most of Bulgaria 1393 and the last remnant of the Bulgarian state lost its independence 1422. The Bulgarian state would not be restored until 1878, and full independence would not be obtained until 1908. The Bulgarian prince proclaimed himself tsar of Bulgaria 1908, but that title is usually translated to king internationally.

The First Bulgarian State
(tsar/kingdom from 913)

c. 629-665
665-668
668-694
694-715
715-721
721-737
737-754
754-760
760-763
763-765
765
765-766
766-767
767-777
777-797
797-814
814-831
831-836
836-852
852-889
889-893
893-927
927-969
969-977
977-997
997-1014
1014-1015
1015-1018
1018
Kurt
Bezmer
Isperih
Tervel
Tvirem
Sevar
Kormisoš
Vineh
Telec
Sabin
Umor
Toktu
Pagan
Telerig Teofilakt
Kardam
Krum
Omurtag
Malamir
Presian I
Boris I Mihail
Vladimir
Simeon I (the Great, = 913)
Petăr I
Boris II
Roman Simeon
Samuil
Gavril Radomir
Ivan Vladislav
Presian II
Bulgaria is conquered by the Byzantine Empire 1018

Rebellions against
the Byzantine Empire
 

1040-1041
1041
1041

1072

Petăr II Deljan
Alusian
Petăr II Deljan
(restored)

Petăr III ( = 1081-1101)


The Second Bulgarian State
 
1185-1197
1189-1196
1196-1207
1207-1218
1218-1241
1241-1246
1246-1256
1256
1256-1261
1257-1277
1272-1279
1278-1279
1279-1280
1280-1292
1292-1298
1298-1300
1299-1300
1300-1321
1321-1323
1323-1330
1330-1331
1331-1371
1356-1397
1371-1395
1397-1422
Petăr IV
Ivan Asen I
Ivan I
Boril
Ivan Asen II
Kaliman Asen I
Mihail Asen II
Kaliman Asen II
Mico Asen
Konstantin I Tih
Mihail Asen II
Ivajlo
Ivan Asen III
Georgi Terter I
Smilec
Ivan II
Čaka
Todor Svetoslav
Georgi Terter II
Mihail Asen III Šišman
Ivan Stefan (co-regent 1323-24)
Ivan Aleksandăr Asen *
Ivan Sracimir (Vidin)
Ivan Šišman (Tarnovo)
Konstantin II
Bulgaria is conquered by the Ottoman empire 1395-1422

Bulgaria
(tsar/kingdom 908-946)

 

1878-1886
1887-1918
1918-1943
1943-1946
1946-
Aleksandăr I (prince)
Ferdinand I ( = 1908)
Boris III
Simeon II
Republic

* = Ivan Aleksandăr appointed his eldest son Mihail Asen IV to co-ruler 1332 but he died 1355. Two other sons were also made co-ruler 1337, Ivan Asen IV and Ivan Sracimir. The former died already in 1349 and a fourth son, Ivan Šišman, became co-ruler 1356. The two surviving sons to Ivan Aleksandăr inherited each a part of Bulgaria with the capitols at Vidin and Tarnovo. These states were conquered by the Turks 1395 and 1397 but a son to Ivan Sracimir continued to rule over a small remnant of the Bulgarian Empire to 1422.