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Örjan Martinsson

Regents of Montenegro

Of the various Serbian principalities which during the early medieval age Duklja was for a long time the most significant. The Pope elevated Duklja to the status of kingdom in 1077 and at the same was this state more and more frequently called Zeta. Its present name Montenegro is known from the 15th century, which is an Italian translation of "Crna Gora" which means "the Black Mountain". Before that had the country been overshadowed and then conquered by the principality of Raška which united the Serbian people during the 12th century. Serbia was dissolved into smaller principalities in the 14th century and Zeta/Montenegro was one of these. It was also the only Christian principality in the Balkans that managed to preserve its independence from the Ottoman Empire. What made the country even more peculiar was the decision of its prince to abdicate 1516 and leave all power to an elected bishop (vladika), whereby Montenegro became a theocracy. From 1697 was the office of vladika hereditary and 1851 was it secularized whereupon Montenegro's government again was headed by a prince with the title "knez". The same dynasty continued to rule however and they declared Montenegro a kingdom in 1910. But only eight years later was the country annexed by Serbia which created the new state of Yugoslavia. During the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s a movement for independence emerged in Montenegro. What remained of Yugoslavia was transformed into a loose commonwealth called Serbia-Montenegro in 2003 and full independence was achieved 2006 after a referendum.

Principality of Zeta/Duklja (Doclea)

House of Vojislavić

c. 900
?
?
?
?
-971
971-990
990-1016

Petar (Predimir)
Hvalimir, Boleslav, Dragislav and Svevlad
Legec
Silvester
Tugomir
Hvalimir II
Petrislav
Jovan Vladimir

1016-1034 Dragomir = 970-1034
1034-1052
1052-1077
Stefan Vojislav (Dobroslav I)
Mihajlo I

Kingdom of Zeta
 
1077-1081 Mihajlo I (same as above)
1081-1101 Konstantin Bodin = 1072
1101-1102
1101-1102
1102
1102-1103
1103-1114
1114-1118
1118-1125
1125-1131
1131-1146
1146-1162
1162-1186
1186

Mihajlo II
Dobroslav II
Dobroslav III
Kocapar
Vladimir II
Djordje
Grubesa
Djordje (restored)
Gradinja
Radoslav
Mihajlo III
Conquered by Serbia


Serbian Vassal Kingdom

 
1186-1190 Stefan Nemanja = 1168-1196
1190-1208 Stefan Vukan Nemanjić = 1202-1204
1208-1248
1248-1276
1276-1309
Djordje Nemanjić
Stefan Nemanjić
Jelena av Anjou
1309-1314 Stefan Uroš III Dečanski = 1321-1331
1314-1322 Stefan Konstantin
1322-1331

Stefan Uroš IV Dušan

= 1331-1356


Principality of Zeta

House of Balšić
 

1356-1362
1362-1378
Balsa I
Djuradj I
1378-1385 Balsa II = 1383-1385
1385-1403
1403-1421

Djuradj II
Balsa III


United with Serbia
 
1421-1427

Stefan Lasarević

= 1389-1427

1427-1456 Djuradj Branković = 1427-1456

Principality of Montenegro

House of Crnojević
 

1435-1465
1465-1490
1490-1496
1496-1499
1499-1515
1515-1516

Stefan I Crnojević
Ivan I
Djuradj IV
Stefan II
Ivan II
Djordje V


Prince Bishops

(Vladikas)

 
1516-1520
1520-1530
1530-1532
1532-1540
1540
1540-1559
1560-1561
1561-1569
1569-1579
1575-1582
1582-1591
1591-1593
1591-1593
1593-1636
1636-1639
1639-1649
1649-1659
1659-1673
1673-1685
1685
1685-1692
1692-1694
1694-1696

Vavila (bishop since 1493)
German II
Pavle
Vasilije I
Nikodim
Romil
Makarije
Ruvim I
Pahomije II Komanin
Gerasim
Venijamin
Nikanor
Stefan (co-ruler)
Ruvim II Boljević
Interregnum
Mardarije I Kornecanin
Visarion II
Mardarije II Kornecanin
Ruvim III Boljević
Vasilije II Velikrasić
Visarion II Banjica
Interregnum
Sava I Kaludjerović


Prince Bishops of the
 House of Petrović-Njegos
(princes from 1851)
 
1696-1735
1735-1781
1750-1766
1782-1830
1830-1851
1852-1860
1860-1910

Danilo I
Sava II
Vasilije (co-ruler)
Petar I
Petar II
Danilo II
Nikola I


Kingdom of Montenegro
 
1910-1918

1918-1941
1941-1943
1943-1944
1944-2003

2003-2006
2006-

Nikola I (same as above)

Part of Yugoslavia
Occupied by Italy *
Occupied by Germany
Part of Yugoslavia

Commonwealth of Serbia and Montenegro
Republic of Montenegro

* = After the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941 was Montenegro handed over to the Italians who declared the country to be a independent kingdom. But it was in reality an Italian puppet state and the grandson to the former king turned down the crown that was offered to him. The Russian prince Roman Romanov did the same and no king was appointed despite Montenegro's status as a kingdom.

= Serbia,   = Albania,    = Bulgaria,    = Zahumlje (Herzegovina)