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Örjan Martinsson

Regents of Northumbria

Northumbria is the Latin name of the old Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumberland. The Latin name is traditionally used to avoid confusion with the much smaller modern county of Northumberland. The name it self means "the land north of the Humber", an estuary on the English east coast. The kingdom was created as a merger of the two Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of (approximately modern Yorkshire) and Bernicia (England north of Yorkshire and a large part of the Scottish Lowland). The kingdom of Northumbria was destroyed in the 870s as a result of a Viking invasion and was partitioned into two smaller states. Deira became the kingdom of York which was a part of the Danelaw, while Bernicia remained independent and ruled by Anglo-Saxon ealdormen (earls from the 11th century). Bernicia was thereafter known as Bernicia, Northumberland or Bamburgh (its capitol). When York was conquered by England 954 was it reunited with Northumberland and the Northumbrian earls enjoyed great autonomy until the earldom was dissolved 1157. The title earl or duke of Northumberland has since 1377 been bestowed to several noblemen, mainly from the house of Percy.

Bernicia
 
Deira
 

c. 500
c. 520-547
547-559
559-560
560-568
568-572
572-579
 579-585
585-593
593-616
616-633

Esa
Eoppa
Ida
Glappa
Adda
Æthelric
Theodric
Frithuwald
Hussa
Æthelfrith
United with Deira

559-589
589-604
604-616
616-633
633-634
634-644
644-651
651-656
656-664
664-670
670-679

Ælle
Æthelric
United with Bernicia
Edwin
Osric
United with Bernicia
Oswine
Æthelwald
Alchfrith
United with Bernicia
Ælfwine

633-634

Eanfrith  
634-642 Oswald
642-670 Oswiu

Kingdom of Northumbria

664-670
670-685
685-704
704-705
705-716
716-718
718-729
729-737
737-758
758-759
759-765
765-774
774-779
779-789
789-790
790-796
796
796-806
806-808
808-810
810-841
841-848
844
848-863
863-867
867-872
872-876
876-878

Oswiu (same as above)
Ecgfrith
Ældfrith
Eadwulf
Osred I
Coenred
Osric
Ceolwulf
Eadberht
Oswulf
Æthelwald Moll
Ealchred
Æthelred I
Ælfwald I
Osred II
Æthelred I (restored)
Osbald
Eardwulf
Ælfwald II
Eardwulf (restored)
Eanred
Æthelred II
Raedwulf
Osbeorht
Ælle II (Ella)
Ecgberht I (subking to the Vikings)
Ricsige (subking to the Vikings)
Ecgberht II (subking to the Vikings)

Deira is transformed into the Viking kingdom of
 York (Jórvik) while Bernicia is ruled by the
 Bamburgh ealdormen

Kingdom of York
 

876-877
877-883
883-895
895-900
900-902
902
902-910
902-910
910-920
920-927
927
927-939
939-941
941-943
943-944
944-947
947-948
949-952
952-954

Halfdan I Ragnarsson
Nominal rule by Bernicia
Guthfrith I Hardicnutsson
Sigfrid
Cnut
Ethelwald
Halfdan II
Eowils Ragnarsson
Ragnall I Ivarsson
Sigtrygg Caech
Guthfrith II Ivarsson *
Occupied by Wessex
Olaf I Guthfrithsson *
Olaf II Cuaran *
Ragnall II Guthfrithsson
Occupied by Wessex
Erik Bloodaxe
Olaf II Cuaran (restored)
Erik Bloodaxe (restored)

Conquered by England 954 and thereafter  ruled by the ealdormen in Bamburgh (Bernicia)

Earldom of Northumbria
(only Bernicia/Bamburgh until 954)

?-913
913-930
930-963
963-993
963-995
995-1016
1016-1019
1016-1024
1019-1038
1038-1041
1031-1055
1055-1065
1065-1066
1067
1067
1067-1068
1068-1069
1070-1072
1072-1075
1075-1080
1080-1086
1086-1095
1095-1139
1139-1152
1152-1157
1157

Eadulf
Ealdred I
Osulf I
Ealdulf Evilcild (only York)
Waltheof I
Uchtred the Bold
Eadulf Cudel (only Bamburgh)
Eirik Håkonsson (only York) **
Ealdred II (only Bamburgh)
Eadulf III (only Bamburgh)
Siward the Dane (only York until 1041)
Tostig
Morcar
Copsi
Osulf II
Gospatric
Robert Comine
Gospatric (restored)
Waltheof II
William Walcher
Aubrey de Coucy
Robert de Mowbray
Earldom disbanded
Henry of Scotland
William the Lion ( =1165-1214)
The earldom is disbanded by the Crown


Earls of Northumberland
 

1377-1405
1405-1416
1416-1455
1455-1461
1461-1464
1464-1470
1470-1489
1489-1527
1527-1537
1537-1557
1551-1553
1557-1571
1571-1572
1572
1572-1585
1585-1632
1632-1668
1668-1670
1670-1674
1674-1716
1683-1749
1749-1750
1750-1766

Henry Percy
Vacant
Henry Percy I (not same as above)
Henry Percy II
Vacant
John Neville
Henry Percy III
Henry Algernon Percy IV
Henry Percy V
Vacant
John Dudley (duke of Northumberland)
Thomas Percy I
Vacant
Thomas Percy I (restored)
Henry Percy II
Henry Percy III
Algernon Percy IV
Joceline Percy V
Vacant
George Fitzroy (duke from 1683)
Vacant
Algernon Seymour
Hugh Percy


Dukes of Northumberland
 

1766-1786
1786-1817
1817-1847
1847-1865
1865-1867
1867-1899
1899-1918
1918-1930
1930-1940
1940-1988
1988-1995
1995-

Hugh Percy I (same as above)
Hugh Percy II
Hugh Percy III
Algernon Percy IV
George Percy V
Algernon Percy VI
Henry Percy VII
Alan Percy VIII
Henry Percy IX
Hugh Percy X
Henry  Percy XI
Ralph Percy XII

= Was the most important Anglo-Saxon king of his time and may have been overlord over the other Anglo-Saxon kings as a so called Bretwalda.
= Scotland
* = Guthfrith, Olaf I and Olaf II were king of Dublin 921-934, 934-941 respectively 945-980.
** = Eirik Håkonsson was earl (jarl) of Norway 1000-1015.