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Örjan Martinsson

Friuli, Verona and Aquileia

Friuli was a significant Lombard duchy in north-eastern Italy, which was created in connection to the Lombard conquest of Italy AD 568. The name Friuli is a distortion of the Roman name of its capital  (Forum Julii). The duchy survived the Frankish conquest of the Lombard kingdom AD 774 and was later reformed into a margraviate. But the fief was returned to the crown c. 900 when its duke was king of Italy 888-924. A few decades later was the margraviate of Verona created, which had almost the same extension as the old Friuli. Its central power would however be severely reduced in the following centuries and "margrave of Verona" became more a honorary titel than a real ruling title. In the peace of Konstanz 1183 was the extensive local autonomy, which the north Italian cities de facto had got a long time ago, confirmed by the emperor and the margraviate can be considered to be dissolved from this point in time. In its place had the Patriarch of Aquileia in 1077 created a ecclesiastical principality, which covered a large part of the former margraviate (including a duchy called Friulii). The city of Verona itself had become a city republic, which from 1260 was dominated by the house of della Scala until it was conquered by Venice in 1405. The territories ruled by the Patriarch of Aqileias was also conquered by Venice in 1420

Duchy of Friuli

c. 568-580
c. 568-590
590-610
610-617
610-617
617-651
651-663
663-666
666
666-678
678-?
?-694
694
694-705
705
705-706
706-739

Grasulf I
Gisulf I
Gisulf II
Tasso
Kakko
Grasulf II
Ago
Lupus
Arnefrid
Wechtar
Landar
Rodoald
Ansfrid
Ado
Ferdulf
Corvulus
Pemmo
739-744 Ratchis
744-749 Aistulf
749-751
751-774
774-776
Anselm
Peter
Hrodgaud

776-787
789-799
799-808
808-817
817-819
819-828
828-846
846-863


Frankish dukes

Marcarius
Eric
Hunfrid
Aio
Cadalaus
Balderic
Divided into four counties
Eberhard


Margraviate of Friuli
 

863-874
874- c. 890
c. 890-896
896-951

Unruoch
Berengar I

Walfred
Direct rule by the king (Berengar I to 924)


Margraviate of Verona
 

952-955

Enrico I
955-976 Enrico II
976-1151 In personal union with Carinthia
1151-1160 Ermanno III
1160-1183 Ermanno IV

The margraviate is dissolved into smaller city states after the peace of Konstanz 1183

The city of Verona itself  had since 1136 been an autonomous commune where Ghibbellines loyal to the emperor and Guelphs loyal to the pope struggled for power. Most of the former margraviate had already in 1077 been granted to the Patriarch of Aquileia. This was an ordinary bishopric whose bishop had taken the title patriarch in the sixth century in a failed attempt to free his diocese from papal authority. From 1077 was Aquileia however a capitol in a ecclesiastical principality, which was one of Italy's most important states until it (together with Verona) was conquered by Venice.

Verona
(Guelphs and Ghibellines)
 

Patriarchate of Aquileia
(dukes of Friuli)
 

1136-1226
1226-1233
1233-1236
1236-1259
1247-1253
1253-1263

Republican government
Ezzelino da Romano
Giovanni di Sehio
Ezzelino (restored)
Rizzardo San Bonifazio
Ludovico San Bonifazio

1077-1084
1084-1085
1086-1121
1122-1129
1130-1161
1161-1181
1182-1194
1195-1204
1204-1218
1218-1251
1251-1269
1269-1273
1273-1299
1299-1301
1302-1315
1316-1318
1319-1332
1334-1350
1350-1358
1359-1365
1365-1381
1381-1387
1387-1394
1394-1402
1402-1412
1409-1418
1412- (1439)

Enrico
Federico II di Moravia
Ulrico I di Eppenstein
Gerardo I
Pellegrino I di Ortenbourg
Ulrico II di Treven
Goffredo
Pellegrino II
Volfrago
Bertoldo
Gregorio di Montelongo
Filippo I di Carinzia
Raimondo della Torre
Pietro II Gerra
Ottobuono di Razzi
Cassono della Torre
Pagano della Torre
Bertrando di San Genesio
Nicola di Lussemburgo
Ludovico I della Torre
Marquardo di Randeck
Filippo II di Alençon
Giovanni V Sobieslaw
Antonio I Gaetani
Antonio II Panciera
Antonio III di Ponte
Ludovico di Teck


House of della Scala
 

1260-1277
1277-1301
1301-1304
1304-1311
1308-1329
1329-1351
1351-1352
1351-1359
1359-1365
1359-1375
1375-1381
1381-1387
1387-1404
1404
1404
1404
1404-1405

Mastino I
Alberto I
Bartolomeo I
Alboino I
Cangrande I
Mastino II
Alberto II
Cangrande II
Paolo Alboino
Cansignorio
Bartolomeo II
Antonio I
Occupied by Milan
Guglielmo
Bruno
Antonio II
Occupied by Padua

Verona and Aquileia are conquered by Venice in 1405 and 1420 respectively

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