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Örjan Martinsson

Roman Emperors

According to tradition Rome was founded as a kingdom 753 BC. The last king was deposed 510 BC whereupon the Roman Republic was created. During the following century city after city and land after land was conquered until the Romans ruled almost the whole known world. The republic had great difficulties to administrate the empire and prevent civil wars. The republic was therefore replaced by a monarchy when Augustus became the first emperor 31 BC. The expansion continued and the Roman Empire reached its maximum extent AD 117, but pressure against the borders grew stronger. To cope with the increasing challenges Roman Empire was divided in two halves ruled by their own emperor from 285. Technically Rome was still a single empire and it was several times after that ruled by a single emperor, but the last time that happened was AD. 395 The western half collapsed during the 5th century while the eastern half evolved into the Byzantine Empire, which would last until 1453. Emperors in red text did just have the title Caesar, i.e. was successor and vice-emperor. Years in red text show when an emperor became Caesar. Maps and chronologies over the Roman Empire are available on this page.

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

31 BC- AD 14
14-37
34-41
41-54
54-68

Augustus (Octavianus)
Tiberius
Caligula
Claudius
Nero


First Year of Four Emperors 
 

68-69
69
69

Galba
Otho
Vitellius


The Flavian Dynasty
 

69-79
(73)
79-81
81-96

Vespasianus
Titus
Domitianus


The Adoptive Emperors
 

96-98
98-117
117-138
138-161
161-180
161-168
(176)
180-192

Nerva
Trajanus
Hadrianus
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius
Lucius Verus
Commodus


Second Year of Four Emperors
 

193
193
193-194
(193) 195-197

Pertinax
Didius Iulianus
Pescennius Niger
Clodius Albinus


Severan Dynasty
 

193-211
(198)
211-217
(209)
211-212

Septimus Severus
Caracalla
Geta


Macrine Dynasty
 

217-218
218

Macrinus I
Macrinus II


Severan Dynasty
 

218-222
222-235

Heliogabalus
Alexander Severus


The Barracks Emperors
 

235-238
238
238
238
238
238-244
244-249
247-249
249-251
251-253
253
253-260
(253)
260-268
(258)
260-268
268-270
270
270-275
275-276
276
276-282
282-283
(282)
283-285
(282)
283-284

Maximinus Thrax
Gordianus I
Gordianus II

Pupienus
Balbinus

Gordianus III
Philippus Arabs
Philippus II

Decius
Trebonianus Gallus
Aemilianus
Valerianus I
Gallienus
Valerianus II
Claudius II Gothicus
Quintillus
Aurelianus
Tacitus
Florianus
Probus
Carus
Carinus
Numerianus

The Tetrarchy 

West

East

285-305
(293)
305-306
(305)
306-307
306-312
306-308
308-311

Maximianus
Constantius I Chlorus
Severus
Maxentius
Maximianus (restored)
Licinius (East from 311) 

284-305
(293)
305-311
(305)
311-313
311-324
317-323

Diocletianus
Galerius
Maximinus Daia
Licinius
Licinianus

House of Constantine the Great  

306-337
317-326
(317)
337-340
(323)
337-361
(333)
337-350
361-363
363-364

Constantinus I (the Great) 

Crispus
Constantinus II
Constantius II
Constans

Gaul
West
East
West

Iulianus Apostata (the Apostate)
Iovianus 

House of Valentinian 

West East

364-375
375-383
383-388
383-392
392-394
394-395

Valentinianus I
Gratianus
Magnus Maximus
Valentinianus II
Eugenius
Theodosius (the Great)

364-378
379-395

Valens
Theodosius (the Great)

East Rome evolve to the Byzantine Empire

 

West Rome

395-423
423-425
425-455
455
455-456
457-461
461-465
465-467
467-472
472
473
473-475
475-476
Honorius
Iohannes
Valentinianus III
Petronius Maximus
Avitus
Majorianus
Libius Severus
Interregnum

Anthemius
Olybrius
Glycerius
Iulius Nepos (Dalmatia 475-80)
Romulus Augustus (Augustulus)

The German Odovacar deposes the last West Roman Emperor 476 and proclaim himself king of Italy.