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Örjan Martinsson

Regents of Tuscany-Florence

Tuscany, which got its name from the Etruscans, was a margraviate from the 9th century and a part of the Holy Roman Empire. It disintegrated into several self-governing communes during the 12th century. The most important commune was the city of Florence, which during the renaissance reunited Tuscany. Florence was throughout the middle age a republic but it was usually controlled by a few individuals, from 1434 the house of Medici. Alessandro dé Medici became duke of the republic of Florence 1531. When the republic of Siena was conquered 1557 all of Tuscany was united again and Cosimo I took the title duke of Tuscany. 1569 He was made grand duke by the Pope. The house of Medici was succeeded by future Emperor Franz Stephan when they the last Medici died 1737. Thereafter was Tuscany a secundogenitur within the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, i.e. it was ruled by a sideline of dynasty. The Habsburgs lost Tuscany during the Napoleonic Wars and it was transformed into the kingdom of Etruria, which 1807 was incorporated with France and governed by Napoleon’s sister Elisa as grand duchess of Tuscany. The Congress of Vienna returned Tuscany to the Habsburgs 1814, but they lost it again when Italy was united 1859-1861.

House of Medici
(dukes from 1531 and grand dukes from 1557)

1434-1464
1464-1469
1469-1478
1469-1492
1492-1494

1494-1512
1512-1521
1512-1513
1512-1519
1521-1524
1524-1527

1527-1530

1531-1537
1537-1574
1574-1587
1587-1609
1609-1621
1621-1670
1670-1723
1723-1737
Cosimo
Piero I
Giuliano I
Lorenzo il Magnifico
Piero II

Republican government *
Giovanni II **
Giuliano II
Lorenzo II
Giulio **
Ippolito

Republican government

Alessandro
Cosimo I
Francesco
Ferdinando I
Cosimo II
Ferdinando II
Cosimo III
Gian Gastone

House of Habsburg-Lorraine
 
1737-1765
1765-1790
1790-1801
Francesco Stefano
Pietro Leopoldo ***
Ferdinando III ****

House of Bourbon
 
1801-1803
1803-1808
Ludovico I
Ludovico II

House of Bonaparte
 
1808-1814 Elisa

House of Habsburg-Lorraine
 
1814-1824
1824-1849
1849
1849-1859
1859-1860
Ferdinando III (restored)
Leopoldo II
Republic
Leopoldo II (restored)
Ferdinando IV

Tuscany join the kingdom of Sardinia 1860

* = The real ruler 1494-1498 was Girolamo Savonarala, 1502-1512 it was Piero Soderini.
** = Giovanni II was as Leo X pope 1513-1521. Giulio was 1523-1534 pope as Clemens VII.
*** = Pietro Leopoldo succeeded his brother Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor 1790.
**** = Ferdinando was grand duke of Salzburg 1803-1805 and of Würzburg 1806-1814.
= Germany