Armies Battles and Sieges Colours and Standards
















Örjan Martinsson

A detail from an illustration of the battle of Gadebusch 1712 which was made by Magnus Rommel who participated in the battle as Swedish quartermaster general.

In the beginning of the war the Swedish infantry mainly wore the karpus on their heads and when hats were worn, these were not yet tricornes. The karpus would however soon be replaced by the tricorne even though the karpus would not disappear completely in the Swedish army. It was in particular the northern regiments which kept the karpus since it was warmer than the hat.

On this page the first image for each regiment shows an older appearance of the uniform while the others have a younger appearance. But exactly when the hat became a tricorne and turnbacks were introduced is unclear and that is discussed on the page covering the cavalry uniforms. A more detailed article about the evolution of the Swedish uniform is also available.

Information about the colour of the neck cloths is scarce and in uncertain cases I have depicted them as white without explanation (this despite the fact that the most common colour was black). However, an overview of what is known about the neckcloth colours can be found on this page.

  "Indelt" Infantry   Conscripted Infantry   Enlisted Infantry
 Uppland  Wierland Land Regiment  Livgardet (Guard)
 Södermanland  Jerwen Land Regiment  Svenska livregementet
 Östergötland  Harrien Land Regiment  Tyska livregementet
 Jönköping  Wiek Land Regiment  Malmö Garrison Regiment
 Kalmar  Ösel Land Battalion  Riksänkedrottningens livregemente
 Kronoberg  Pernau Land Battalion  Pomeranian
 Älvsborg  Fellin Land Battalion  Stralsund Garrison Regiment
 Västgöta-Dal  Oberphalen Land Battalion  Wismar Governor's Regiment.
 Skaraborg  Dorpat Land Battalion  Wismar Garrison Regiment
 Närke-Värmland  Nüggen Land Battalion  Bremen
 Västmanland  Sagnitz Land Battalion  Stade Garrison Regiment
 Dalregementet  Walk Land Battalion    Riga Governor's Regiment
 Hälsinge  Wolmar Land Battalion    Riga Garrison Regiment
 Jämtland  Wenden Land Battalion    K. G. Skytte's
 Västerbotten  Treyden Land Battalion  Narva Garrison Regiment
 Österbotten  Kokenhusen Land Battalion  Ingermanland
 Björneborg  Tirsen Land Battalion    de la Gardie's
 Åbo Län  Marienburg Land Battalion    Stackelberg's
 Nyland  Anklam Land Regiment    von Liewen's
 Tavastehus  Bremen Land Regiment    Zöge's
 Savolax  Rügen Land Regiment    Nieroth's
 Viborg  Stettin Land Regiment    Mellin's
  Combined Regiments  Berg-regiment  von Mengden's
 H. G. Buddenbrock  Östra Skånska  von Schwengeln's
 Per Banér  Västra Skånska    von  Bechern's
 Klingstedt – Wrangel  Halland  Reval Staff Major's Battalion
         Elbing Garrison Regiment
  "Männing" Infantry      Breitholtz'
 Uppland 3-männings  Åbo, Björn. & Nyl. 3-männ.  Rheinland
 Östgöta-Sörmland 3-männ.  Tav., Viborg & Sav. 3-männ.  Finnish Enlisted Battalion
 Småland 3-männings  Björneborg Double Regiment  The Grenadier Battalion
 Västgöta 3-männings  Åbo Län Double Regiment  Bavarian
 Närke-Värmland 3-männ.  Nyland Double Regiment  French
 Hälsinge 3- & 5-männings  Tavastehus Double Regiment    Swiss
 Västerbotten 3-männings  Savolax Double Regiment  Saxon
 Uppland 5-männings  Viborg Double Regiment  von Straelborn's
 Småland 5-männings      Boije's
 Västgöta 4- & 5-männings      Seulenburg's

Note that the Finnish regiments are described on a separate page.

Uppland Regiment




1710-?, 1716-

Pewter buttons 1701/02 but recruits had in 1707 brass buttons.

Colour on cuffs and lining unknown but the ”släpmundering” from 1716 had this combination. Hat lace and button colour also unknown. Already in 1712 were the uniforms in such a poor condition that general Stenbock remarked that they looked more like beggars than soldiers.

Södermanland Regiment





Hat lace colour not mentioned, but lace on the cloak collar was often the same colour as the hat lace.

Uniform issued 1715 had blue karpus, breeches and stockings.

Received new uniforms in 1704 but these have no been described in the sources. Recruits had yellow stockings in 1707.

Östergötland Regiment





Button colour not mentioned. Cloak issued between 1696 and 1699.

Hat lace not mentioned but button holes had white seam.

Instead of the blue and yellow hat lace and red neckcloths from 1707, which Höglund states the regiment wore, recruits in 1708 had green hat lace and motley neckcloths according to Bengt Nilsson.

White hat lace in 1715 according to Anders Larsson and it was also white 1720 when white stockings were issued. Received in 1710 both yellow and grey stockings as well as a grey piecoat with yellow cuff. Later a blue cloak was issued. Had 1716-1720 yellow vests and breeches of cloth, and the cloak is reported to have had a yellow collar.

Jönköping Regiment





Button colour unknown.

Button colour and stockings unknown.

Did not receive uniforms when it was restored in 1716 and wore in Norway 1718 a grey vadmal coat with red cuffs (lining and button colour is not mentioned) as well as white or grey stockings. Blue coats with red cuffs and lining were issued in 1719.

The colour of the neckcloth is only mentioned two times. It was red in the 1690s (Bellander page 197) and black in 1718 according to Höglund.

Kalmar Regiment


Recruits in 1708



The blue and white hat lace and the button colour is only mentioned in 1700. The colour of the neckcloth is only mentioned in 1708 when 27 recruits wore red neckcloths as well as hats with wide white lace and yellow stockings (according to Bengt Nilsson).

Both blue and grey stockings were issued in 1710 when they also received a grey piecoat (instead of a blue cloak). Was supposed to have black neckcloth but had none in 1711. Hat lace colour unknown.

I interpret from Anders Larsson that hat lace was blue and white in 1718 (when the buttons are reported to have been made of brass). Had both grey and yellow stockings in 1718.

Kronoberg Regiment



Recruits in 1707




Button and hat lace colour unknown.

Hat lace colour unknown. New uniforms issued in 1704 but without description in the sources. Button and hat lace colour unknown while the colour on cuffs and lining is mentioned first in 1716. Blue breeches in 1714 according to Anders Larsson.
A Danish spy report from 1711 describes a grey coat with pewter buttons and yellow cuffs and lining. This was probably the ”släpmundering” which they wore to avoid wear and tear on the regular “livmundering”.

Älvsborg Regiment





Cloak first issued in 1696.

Also received white stockings when new uniforms were issued in 1710.

Höglund only mention that the restored regiment had "old karpuses, blue cloaks and coats”.

Hat lace colour unknown.

Västgöta-Dal Regiment




Button colour unknown.

Apart from the blue-white-yellow lace, the karpus also had seven small buttons (Bellander page 206). The neckcloth was striped until 1708 when it became white. Provisional uniform for the restored regiment. Headgear as well as colour on cuffs, lining and buttons unknown. Furthermore, a grey piecoat (instead of a cloak).

Skaraborg Regiment





The karpus had a tassel which could suggest it had a hanging bag (like Santa Claus).

Hat lace not mentioned. The restored regiment wore in 1710 a grey vadmal outfit.

Colour on the cloak’s lining and collar (apart from the white lace) is not mentioned.

Grey or white stockings. Two companies had blue vests and breeches. In 1717 the regiment’s breeches and vests were yellow.

Närke-Värmland Regiment





Björn Asker writes that information on the karpus is missing but that it was likely blue with red lining. Anders Larsson has found information from 1701 which confirms that the karpus was blue with red lining. Asker also writes that the stockings were "probably" red. Cloaks were first issued in 1696.

Vest and breeches not mentioned.

The description above is for recruits in 1707, but hats had been ordered for the entire regiment this year.

After 1713, the restored field companies wore no uniforms for a long time, but had in 1717 similar uniforms as before, but with a hat instead of a karpus, and also vest and breeches of red cloth instead of leather.

The Närke-Värmland regiment was in practice split into two parts during the war. A field regiment consisting of six companies (988 men) whose uniforms are shown above and four companies (686 men) who stayed at home to guard the Norwegian border. The home companies received new uniforms in 1704 which they then wore throughout the war. They differed from the field regiment by having blue-red karpuses and blue breeches.

A distinguishing feature for this regiment (other than its red colour) is that the metal parts of their uniforms and equipment appear to have been made of white metal until 1709.

Västmanland Regiment





Breeches and vests of cloth (unknown colour) had been made in Saxony and because of that a shipment of vests and breeches of leather were returned to Sweden. The black karpuses with blue cuffs and yellow lining that had been ordered in 1706 were also sent back.

Hat lace colour unknown.
The restored parts of the regiments wore after Tönningen grey vadmal coats.

Button colour unknown.






Höglund states that they had cloaks in 1700 but according to Björn Asker these were first issued in 1701.  

The description above is for recruits in 1707. Neither hat lace nor breeches are mentioned but both 1704 and 1710 the Dal-regiment had breeches of leather as well as yellow cloth.

Hat lace and button colour not mentioned. Had (grey) piecoats in 1710 and blue cloaks in 1718. Breeches of both yellow cloth and of leather in 1718, same thing for both breeches and vest in 1710.

Hälsinge Regiment





The karpus had yellow lining 1701-1702. On other occasions it is only described as blue without mentioning the lining even when the coat’s lining is mentioned.

Received blue cloaks 1702. Vest and button colour not mentioned. The uniform of the restored regiment in 1710 is unknown.

Only ”släpmundering”. Hat lace and colour on cuffs, lining and buttons unknown. Most of the regiment was dressed in their ”släpmundering” already during Stenbock’s campaign in 1712.

Button colour unknown. Also had grey stockings.

Jämtland Dragoon Regiment
(Partially mounted during the war)



Button colour, vest and breeches unknown. Also had a (grey) piecoat with yellow cuffs and lining.

Brass buttons in 1710 according to Anders Larsson. Had both piecoats and cloaks during the Norwegian campaign 1718-19. Probably wore vadmal coats after the campaign.

Västerbotten Regiment



Juni 1712


The uniform data here is from 1694, but 633 karpuses (appearance not described in the source) were delivered in November 1706 according to Bengt Nilsson.

In 1694 the neckcloth was white with blue stripes and tied with a black ribbon. In 1702 it was blue with white stripes (no ribbon).

Headgear, stockings and button colour unknown. Colours on the vadmal coat not mentioned either but they also had a grey piecoat with white cuffs and collar. Were well dressed in Reval in 1710.

Button colour unknown. Also had a blue cloak.

Uppland 3-männing Regiment
(Existed 1700-1708 and 1712-1719, included soldiers from Dalarna and Västmanland)





Only described as wearing vadmal coats but I guess that they had the same uniform as Östgöta-Södermanland 3-männings at this time. The battalion that was a part of the main army received red Saxon coats after the battle of Kliszow.

Colour of stockings and buttons not mentioned. Also had grey piecoat with yellow lining and cuffs. Blue breeches in 1704.

Had breeches of leather and blue cloth. Vest and colour of the karpus' facing is not mentioned.

Hat lace and buttons not mentioned.

Östgöta-Södermanland 3-männing Regiment
(Existed 1700-1703 and 1712-1721, temporary disbanded in 1714)




Hat lace, button colour and edges on pocket flaps not mentioned. The battalion that was a part of the main army received red Saxon coats after the battle of Kliszow.

Only mentioned that they had hat, grey vadmal coat, leather vest and leather breeches. They appear to have had the same clothes in 1715.

Småland 3-männing Regiment
(Existed 1700-1708 and restored in 1712)




Had breeches of leather or blue cloth. Blue and black neckcloths. Vest not mentioned.

No details are mentioned, but they were: "provided with excessively bad clothing so that with the onset of winter they cannot possibly be conserved!".

Hat lace and buttons as well as the lining and collar of the cloak are not mentioned. Also had black gaiters.

Västgöta 3-männing Regiment


1710,1713, 1715



Only mentioned that they had hat, grey piecoat with blue and yellow lace, grey vadmal coat with blue cuffs and lace. However, compare the other Swedish 3-männings because I suspect that they all received the same uniform when they were raised in 1700.

Only thing that is mentioned are: 1710/173 hat, piecoat, blue coat, leather vest and leather breeches. Received in 1715 new blue coats with pewter buttons, yellow lining and cuffs.

Only mentioned that the coat and breeches were of grey vadmal.


Närke-Värmland 3-männing Regiment
(Existed 1700-1708 and 1712-1720, the first regiment also included conscripted men from Bergsslagen)





The 3-männings had hats with blue and yellow lace, grey vadmal coat with pewter buttons, blue cuffs and edge. The men from Bergslagen had grey piecoat and blue coat with yellow lining and cuffs as well as leather vest, leather breeches and wool stockings.

Button colour and vest unknown. Colour of the karpus facing is not mentioned.

New uniform that replaced earlier grey vadmal clothes.

Only mentioned: New blue coats, yellow vests, leather breeches, shoes, gloves, neckcloths and white wool stockings.

Other Männing Regiments

3- & 5-männings

4- & 5-männings

Småland (and Östgöta)


Had buttons made of horn. Vest as well as the lining and collar of the cloak not mentioned. Had until 1716 hat, grey vadmal coat with yellow cuffs, leather vest and leather breeches.

Grey piecoat with yellow and blue lace, grey vadmal coat with yellow cuffs, leather vest and leather breeches. In 1711 hats as well as white and grey stockings were issued. In 1713/1714 they received blue coats with yellow lining and cuffs.

Had leather breeches in 1708 (the vest was not mentioned at that time).

Höglund writes that they had yellow hat lace in 1710 and received identical uniforms in 1713, but Anders Larsson states that they in 1713 had "yellow lace around with blue in it” on the hat.

The uniforms of Västerbotten's 3-männings are completely unknown. The first unit was transferred to Livonia in 1702 and merged with the parent regiment. The second incarnation was transferred to Finland, but what happened to it after that is unknown.

Even though it was only Närke-Värmland's 3-männings who explicitly received such in 1700, and later perhaps also Uppland's 5-männings, I suspect that it was standard for all männing units to have blue-yellow lace on their hats.

Combined regiments

Per Banér's regiment

Buddenbrock's regiment

Wrangel's regiment

Consisted of 879 Scanians, 70 men from Jönköping, 77 men from Kronoberg and 95 men from Kalmar

Consisted of 455 men from Hallland and Närke-Värmland's 3-männings, 101 men from Uppland, 90 men from Västergötland, 87 men from Östergötland, 63 men from Närke-Värmland's regiment, 80 men from Västmanland, 60 men from Södermanland and 154 men from Västerbotten

Consisted of 78 men from Södermanland, 141 from Västmanland, 139 from Älvsborg, 172 from Dalarna, 70 from Västgöta-Dal, 183 from Hälsinge regiment, 83 from Närke-Värmland. and 85 men from Östergötland.

These regiments were formed by merging contingents of soldiers who had been separated from their units. The soldiers who were part of these regiments probably did not have any standardised uniforms, but were instead dressed in grey vadmal clothes or the uniforms of their parent regiments.

In Riga, two such regiments were formed in October 1709 from recruits who had not been able to join their regiments in the main army and from soldiers who fled to Riga after the Battle of Ljesna. These regiments were then disbanded when all national Swedish personnel were sent back to Sweden in 1710.

In Wismar, in 1713, a combined regiment was formed of men who, for various reasons, had been left there by Magnus Stenbock when he marched towards Tönningen (mainly soldiers who had been wounded in the battle of Gadebusch). The regiment was first led by Henrik Klingstedt, but in the fall of 1714 it seems to have become two independent battalions under the command of lieutenant colonels Wrangel and Numers. From June 1715, Numers is no longer mentioned and all the men were now under Wrangel's command.

Estonian Land Regiments





The colour of the hat lace and the vest are not mentioned at any point (nor is the lining of the grey uniform).

According to Höglund, the coat was blue with yellow lining and cuffs in 1702 when they also had a hat and leather breeches. However, Höglund does not mention a grey uniform in 1704-1706, while Kalle Kroon does not mention a blue uniform before 1707

Stockings, buttons and the colour of the hat lace are not mentioned.

Hat lace colour, vest and lining not mentioned.

The uniform of Wiek Land Regiment, which existed in 1701-1704, is completely unknown.

Livonian Land Battalions


Pernau (1701)
Fellin (1701)

Vest, breeches and stockings not mentioned. These battalions had according to Kalle Kroon both grey and white vadmal coats because of insufficient supply of grey vadmal.

Wenden (1702)
Tirsen (1702)

Vest not mentioned.


German Land Regiments





Danish sources are said to have described captured soldiers from these regiments as dressed in simple peasant clothing. As there is no evidence that uniforms were issued to them, it is likely that they never had any.

Swedish Conscripted Regiments


Östra Skånska

Västra Skånska

Hat lace colour not mentioned. Black neckcloths were issued in 1719.

Merged with another Berg battalion in 1705 that hade blue breeches (vest and stockings not mentioned). Both battalions kept their old uniforms throughout the war.

Colour of hat lace, buttons and neckcloth not mentioned. Also had piecoat.

Colour of hat lace and buttons not mentioned. Drummers and provost had pewter buttons.

Colour of hat lace and neckcloth not mentioned.

Livgardet (The Guard)
(A more detailed description of its uniforms is available
on this page)





Colour of vest unknown.

Vest unknown.  Lace on the hat and the cloak's collar is my interpretation of the sources "gold, silver in silk".

  Hat lace is not mentioned and the cloak's collar is only mentioned to have had "silk lace". I have guessed that the gold and silver  were replaced with yellow and white thread for economical reasons.

Other Swedish Enlisted Regiments

Svenska Livregementet (Swedish Life Regiment)

Tyska livregementet (German Life Regiment)
1698/1701, 1702 and 1703

Garrison Regiment
1696 and 1702
The Grenadier Battalion

Hat lace and vest not mentioned, but had these colours before 1702.

Vest not mentioned.

Hat lace and button colour not mentioned. Had both white and yellow stockings.

German Enlisted Regiments

(Dowager Queen's)
Life Regiment on Foot
1695 and 1702

Vest not mentioned. Was a garrison regiment in Stettin and other towns.

Pomeranian Regiment
1698 and 1702

Stralsund Garrison Regiment
1702 and 1703


Vest not mentioned. According to Höglund they likely had the same uniform in 1710 which was then in good condition.

Vest not mentioned and also not the colour on the cloak’s lining and collar apart from the white lace. The uniform colour is stated "Hoch Orange", which according to Höglund was closest to "cinnober" red (vermilion).

Governor's Regiment


Governor's Regiment

Garrison Regiment
1703 and 1706

Garrison Regiment

Hat lace, cloak, buttons and facing colours not mentioned, but they had these colours in 1704 (when the breeches were made of leather and the vest was not mentioned)

Vest not mentioned.

Colour on hat lace, buttons and stockings not mentioned, but they probably received the same uniform as the Governor's regiment in 1713.

Bremen Regiment

Garrison Regiment

Garrison Regiment

Vest not mentioned. The buttonholes were not mentioned either but I have guessed that they were white.

Also had gaiters. Colours of the hat lace and the cloak's collar are unknown. The buttonholes are also not mentioned, but the provost had white buttonholes and a hat with red and white lace.

Elbing Garrison Regiment

Breitholtz' Regiment

Rheinland Regiment

Vest not mentioned. Pewter buttons according to Lars-Eric Höglund, brass buttons according to Anders Larsson.

A regiment that had been in British service before it was transferred to the Swedish army in 1712. It was disbanded when Stralsund capitulated in 1715.

Baltic Enlisted Regiments

Governor's Regiment

Garrison Regiment

Skytte's Regiment

Garrison Regiment

Corporals are mentioned to have had buttonholes sewn in red so probably the rest of rank and file did not have it. Received a new uniform in 1701 which was the same except for blue vests with buttonholes sewn in red for corporals.

In 1698, they also had a blue karpus, blue breeches and grey stockings. Received a new uniform in 1701, which was identical with the one from 1698.

Hat lace, button colour and vest unknown. Received hats with silver lace in 1699 and had brass buttons in 1698 (when breeches and hat lace were yellow).

Also had hats with blue lace.

Stackelberg's Regiment

Grenadier Company in
de la Gardie's Regiment

De la Gardie's Regiment
 ca 1707


Liewen's Regiment

Vest not mentioned.

Only the cap is known.
De la Gardie’s regimental colour was actually yellow but the grenadier company was supposedly part of the Narva garrison and may have received uniforms with the same colours as its garrison regiment.

Vest and breeches are not mentioned but breeches were blue in 1705. The tassel on the karpus might suggest that the crown was of a similar design as the grenadier cap.

Hat lace and vest not mentioned. Were probably dressed in grey vadmal before 1703.

Zöge's Battalion

Nieroth's Regiment

Mellin's Regiment

Mellin's Regiment

Also had blue stockings

Vest not mentioned.

Hat lace and vest not mentioned.

Mengden's Regiment

Schwengelns regemente

Bechern's Regiment

Reval Staff Major's Battalion

Facings and vest not mentioned.

Colour of hat lace, buttons and vest not mentioned.

Hat lace and vest not mentioned.

Vest not mentioned.

Enlisted POWs

Bavarian, French and Swiss

Three units raised from prisoners of war taken in the battle of Fraustadt. The uniform colours were blue, red and aurora (= orange). But it is not known which regiment had which colour.

Stöhr's Battalion

Unknown uniform

Saxon Regiment
Boije's Battalion

Colour of the hat lace not mentioned.

Straelborns bataljon
Seulenborg's Battalion

The facings of the karpus is not mentioned.

When the Great Northern War began, the artillerymen were supposed to have grey coats with blue cuffs, but during the course of the war they transitioned to all blue coats. Already in 1696 had the colonel of the Artillery Regiment requested that the artillerymen should wear blue coats just like the rest of the army, but this was denied by the King. Despite of that decision there are early cases of blue artillery coats from Dalarö (1702), Narva (1703, with grey stockings), Dorpat & Pernau (1704, with grey stockings), Vaxholm (1704, with yellow cuffs and white stockings) and Landskrona & Varberg (1709). From 1711 and onwards the coats were always blue.

During the transition phase there are known cases of grey coats for the artillery in Livonia and Courland (1702), Bremen-Verden (1703), Jönköping (1707 & 1708) and Stenbock’s army (1709).

When the colour of the hat lace is mentioned, it is always yellow for the grey clad artillerymen: Riga & Kobron (1697), Livonia & Courland (1702) and Jönköping (1707 & 1708). Artillery constables in Bremen-Verden had gold lace in 1703. Likewise do the grey clad artillerymen appear to always have had brass buttons, leather breeches, leather vests and blue stockings when these details are mentioned.

For the blue clad artillerymen there are three cases when the hat lace colour was mentioned and each time it was white (Finland 1711, Wismar 1715 and Karlshamn 1717). There is one case where the button colour was mentioned and it was pewter (Wismar 1715). Vest, breeches and stockings were consistently blue from 1711 and onwards, but before that year there were several exceptions.

See also the Finnish regiment's uniforms and Cavalry regiment's uniforms


Asker, Björn. Om svenska fotfolkets nybeklädnad (article in MAM 40). Stockholm (1983).
Asker, Björn. Upplands regemente och Karl XI:s uniformsreformer (article in MAM 39). Stockholm (1981).
Bellander, Erik. Dräkt och uniform. Stockholm (1973).
Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721 - Fanor och uniformer. Karlstad (2000).
Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721, II. Karlstad (2003).
Larsson, Anders. Karolinska uniformer och munderingar åren 1700-1721. Östersund (2022)
Åberg, Alf – Göransson, Göte. Karoliner. Stockholm (1976).

The information from Kalle Kroon comes from an e-mail he has sent me, but I have published it on my blog.