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Örjan Martinsson

Regents of Ukraine

Ukraine is the cradle of Russia and until 1169 were the grand princes of Kiev supreme rulers over all Russia. But that the princes of Kiev lost their power to the princes of Vladimir-Suzdal and in 1240 was the city itself destroyed by the Mongols. During the following centuries were Ukraine and the rest of Russia to walk on separate paths when the Ukrainians came under Polish rule. Successful Cossack leaders created in the 17th century an autonomous Ukrainian state that although short-lived would lead to the development of a separate Ukrainian nationality. The Russian tsars reunited Ukraine, piece by piece, with Russia in 1667, 1795 and 1939. They tried to suppress this development and instead emphasise Ukraine's close ties to Russia. But after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 is Ukraine an independent state and the question of Ukraine's identity is under intensive debate. The eastern half of the country are pro-Russian while the Western half cultivate a separate Ukrainian identity and seek closer relations with the western countries.

Principality of Kiev

c. 860-882 Askold and Dir

House of Rurik
(grand princes over all Russia until 1169)
 
c. 882-912
c. 912-945
c. 945-972
c. 972-980
c. 980-1015
1015-1019
1019-1054
1054-1073
1068-1069
1073-1076
1076-1078
1078-1093
1093-1113
1113-1125
1125-1132
1132-1139
1139
1139-1146
1146
1146-1149
1150
1150
1150-1151
1150-1154
1150-1154
1154-1155
1155-1157
1157
1157-1158
1158-1167
1167-1169
1169
Oleg (Helge the Wise)
Igor (Ingvar)
Svyatoslav
Yaropolk I
Vladimir I Svatoy (the Holy)
Svyatopolk I
Yaroslav I
Izyaslav I
Vseslav
Svyatoslav II
Izyaslav I (restored)
Vsevolod I
Svyatopolk II
Vladimir II Monomach
Mstislav I
Yaropolk II
Vyacheslav
Vsevolod II
Igor II
Izyaslav II
Yuri Dolgoruky
Izyaslav II (restored)
Yuri Dolgoruky
(restored)
Vyacheslav (restored)
Izyaslav II (re-restored)
Rostislav I
Yuri Dolgoruky (Vladimir-Suzdal)
Izyaslav III
Mstislav III
Rostislav I (restored)
Mstislav III (restored)
Gleb
1170
1170-1171
1171
1171
1171-1173
1173
Mstislav III (re-restored)
Gleb (restored)
Vladimir III
Mikhal Yuryevich
Roman Rostislavich
Vsevolod Yuryevich
= 1177-1212
1173
1174
1174-1175
1175-1177
1177-1180
1180
1180-1182
1182-1194
1194-1202
1202
1203-1205
Rurik Rostislavich
Svjatoslav Vsevolodovich
Jaroslav Izyaslavich
Roman Rostislavich (restored)
Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich (restored)
Jaroslav Izyaslavich (restored)
Rurik Rostislavich (restored)
Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich (re-restored)
Rurik Rostislavich (re-restored)
Ingvar Yaroslavich
Rurik Rostislavich (re-re-restored)
1203-1205 Roman Mstislavich
1204-1206
1206
1206-1207
1207-1210
1210-1214
1214
Rostislav Rurikovich
Rurik Rostislavich (re-re-re-restored)
Vsevolod Svyatoslavich
Rurik Rostislavich (re-re-re-re-restored)
Vsevolod Svyatoslavich (restored
Ingvar Jaroslavitj (restored)
1214-1223 Mstislav Romanovich
1223-1235
1235-1236
Vladimir Rurikovich
Izyaslav Vladimirovich
1236-1238 Jaroslav Vsevolodovich = 1238-1246
1238-1239 Mikhail Vsevolodovich
1239 Rostislav Mikhailovich
1239-1240 Danylo Romanovich
1240-1362
1362-1569
1569-1667
Part of the Golden Horde (the Mongols)
Part of Lithuania
Part of Poland


Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols in 1240 and ceased to by a residence for Russian princes. With the Union of Lublin 1569 became Ukraine a part of Poland. But a Cossack rebellion against the Polish king 1648 resulted in the creation of an autonomous Ukrainian state led by a hetman elected by the Cossacks themselves. This state would however soon suffer from civil war between those who supported a union with Russia and those who wanted to remain Polish. The civil war resulted in division of the Hetmanate into a Polish and a Russian part, each ruled by a separate hetman. The division was confirmed with the peace of Andrusovo 1667 in which Poland ceded the Eastern half of Ukraine to Russia. The civil war would however continue until the accession of Mazepa as hetman in the Russian part. But his rebellion against Russia and alliance with Sweden in 1708 became the beginning of the end of the Hetmanate which would not regain its previous autonomous status.

The Cossack Hetmanate

1649-1657
1657
1657-1659
1659-1662

Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Yurii Khmelnytsky
Ivan Vyhovsky
Yurii Khmelnytsky
(restored)


Hetmans in Polish service
 

1663-1665
1665
1665-
1676
1669-1674

Pavlo Teteria
Stepan Opara
Petro Doroshenko
(rebel from 1667)
Mykhailo Khanenko


Hetmans in Turkish service
 

1678-1681

Yurii Khmelnytsky (re-restored)


Hetmans in Russian service
 

1663-1668
1669-1672
1672-1687
1687-
1709
1708-1722
1722-1727
1727-1734
1734-1750
1750-1764
1764-1780

Ivan Briukhovetsky
Demian Mnohohrishny
Ivan Samoylovych
Ivan Mazepa
(rebel from 1708)
Ivan Skoropadsky
Direct rule by Russia
Danylo Apostol
Direct rule by Russia
Kyrylo Rozumovsky
Direct rule by Russia

The Hetmanate is dissolved 1780 and incorporated with the rest of Russia

Eastern Ukraine with the city of Kiev became Russian 1667. The western part of Ukraine remained Polish until Poland's second and third partitions 1793 and 1795 when the area was divided between Russia and Austria. After the First World War were two Ukrainian republics created on Austrian and Russian territories respectively. None of these would however control much of Ukraine and it was instead the Soviet republic created by the communist in Kiev who managed to impose its authority over most of Ukraine. This socialist Soviet Republic (SSR) joined the newly created Soviet Union in 1922. The remaining part of Ukraine had come under Polish control but was 1939 united with the Ukrainian SSR. When the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991 became Ukraine an independent republic.

West Ukraine
 
East Ukraine
 

1667-1795
1795-1918
1918-1919
1919-1939
1939-1991

Part of Poland
Part of Austria
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Part of Poland
Part of the Soviet Union

1667-1917
1917-1920
1917- (1991)

1922-1991
 

Part of Russia
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian SSR

Part of the Soviet Union
 

Ukraine

1991-1994
1994-2005
2005-2010
2010-2014
2014
2014-

Leonid Kravchuk
Leonid Kuchma
Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yanukovych
Oleksandr Turchynov
(acting)
Petro Poroshenko
= Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal) = Galicia-Volhynia = Chernigov = Novgorod = Smolensk