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Örjan Martinsson

Kings and Princes of Poland

Before 1320 the Polish rulers were with a few exceptions not kings. They had instead the title "ksiaze", which can be translated to either prince or duke. In 1138 was Poland divided between different branches of the ruling dynasty into several autonomous principalities. But the principality of Krakow would always belong to the senior member of each generation, who had supremacy over all other principalities. This arrangement disintegrated in the period of 1180-1227 and the principality of Krakow became thereafter hereditary, although its prince still retained nominal supremacy over the other princes.

Poland and Lithuania were 1569 united in a union with weak central power, its name (Rzeczpospolita) can be translated to either "the republic" or "the commonwealth". This state could not defend itself when it was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia 1772-1795. A Polish state was restored during the Napoleonic wars but it was transformed to Congress Poland 1815, which was in reality an autonomous part of the Russian empire. It was only after the First World War a really independent Polish state was created.

Principality of Poland

c. 960-992
992-1025
1025-1031
c. 1031
1032
1032-1034
1034-1058
1058-1079
1079-1102
1102-1107
1102-1138
House of Piast

Mieszko I
Boleslaw I Chobry (the Brave)    
Mieszko II Lambert

= 1025 
= 1025
Bezprym
Dytryk
Otton
Kazimierz I Odnowiciel (the Restaurator)
Boleslaw II Smialy (the Bold)
Wladyslaw I Herman
Zbigniew
Boleslaw III Krzywousty (Wry mouth)
= 1076

Principality of Krakow
(Senior princes with formal supremacy over the rest of Poland)
 
1138-1146 Wladyslaw II Wygnaniec (the Exiled)
1146-1173 Boleslaw IV Kedzierzawy (the Curly)
1173-1202 Mieszko III Stary (the Old)
1177-1194 Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy (the Just)
1194-1227 Leszek I Bialy (the White)
1202 Wladyslaw III Laskonogi
1210-1211 Mieszko IV Platonogi
1228 Wladyslaw III Laskonogi (restored)
1229-1232

Konrad I

1232-1238 Henryk I Brodaty (the Bearded)
1238-1241 Henryk II Pobozny (the Pious)
1241-1243 Konrad I (restored)  
1243-1279 Boleslaw V Wstydliwy (the Chaste)
1279-1288 Leszek II Czarny (the Black)
1288-1290 Henryk IV Probus
1290-1291 Przemysl II ( of Great Poland 1295-96)
1291-1305
1305-1306

House of Přemysl

Waclaw I ( = 1300)
Waclaw II



Kingdom of Poland
 
(1306)-1333
1333-1370

House of Piast

Wladyslaw I Lokietek (the Short, = 1320)
Kazimierz III Wielki (the Great)

 
 
1370-1382
1384-1386


House of Anjou

Ludwik Wielki (the Great)
Jadwiga (Hedvig)


 
1386-1434


House of Jagiello

Wladyslaw II (Jagiello)

1434-1444 Wladyslaw III Warnenczyk
1444-1447 Interregnum
1447-1492 Kazimierz IV Jagiellonczyk
1492-1501 Jan I Olbracht
1501-1506 Aleksander
1506-1548 Zygmunt I Stary (the Old)
1548-1572 Zygmunt II August


Rzeczpospolita
(union with )
 

1573-1574 Henryk III Walezy (Valois)*
1576-1586 Stefan Batory
1587-1632 Zygmunt III Waza (Vasa)
1632-1648
1648-1668
1669-1673
1674-1696
Wladyslaw IV Waza (Vasa)*
Jan III Kazimierz (Vasa)
Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki
Jan Sobieski
1697-1704 August II Mocny (the Strong)
1705-1709 Stanislaw I Leszczynski
1709-1733 August II (restored)
1733-1736 Stanislaw I Leszczynski (restored)
1733-1763 August III
1764-1795 Stanislaw August II Poniatowski

Poland is dissolved as a state after its third partition 1795

Grand Duchy of Warszaw
 

1807-1813

Fryderyk August I

Kingdom of Poland
 
(Congress Poland)
 
1815-1825

Aleksander II

1825-1855 Mikolaj I
1855-1874 Aleksander III

The last remnants of Poland's autonomy disappear and the country is transformed into a Russian province 1874.
 

1916-1918
1918-1939
1939-1945
1945-

Kingdom of Poland (German-Austrian protectorate)
Republic of Poland
General Government of Poland
(German occupation)
Republic of Poland

* = Henryk III was king of France 1574-1589 and Wladyslaw IV was tsar of Russia 1610-1612.

= Sweden
= Saxony
= Bohemia
= Hungary
= Great Poland = Kuyavia
= Silesia
 
= Pomerelia
= Mazovia
= Transylvania
 
= Finland
= Lithuania
= Russia