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Örjan Martinsson

Transylvania

When the Hungarian king Lajos II was killed during the disastrous battle at Mohacs against the Ottomans, Hungary was catapulted into a civil war between them who supported the Habsburgs claim to the throne and those who supported János Zapolya, voivod of Transylvania. The latter recognised the Ottoman Sultan as his overlord. But despite of Ottoman support, Zapolya never managed to control all Hungary. The conflict ended with the Ottoman Empire annexing one third of Hungary and recognising the Habsburgs as Hungarian kings and rulers of one third of Hungary. The last third of Hungary was transformed into the Ottoman vassal state of Transylvania. The autonomy Transylvania received was so generous that it was practically an independent state and it played an active roll in the history of central Europe. But Austria’s successes in the war against the Ottomans meant that Transylvania shifted its allegiance to Austria 1686 and the Habsburgs would later rule Transylvania directly. It was elevated to a grand principality 1765 but it disappeared as a separate political entity when it was reunited with Hungary 1867.

Note that this list use the Western name order (i.e. given-name + family-name). In the native Hungarian language the family name would come first and the given name second (i.e. Báthory István instead of Western-style István Báthory).

Transylvanian Kings of Hungary

1526-1540
1540-1570
János I Zapolya (voivod of Transylvania 1511-1526)
János II Zsigmond Zápolya

Principality of Transylvania
 
1570-1571
János II Zsigmond Zápolya (same as above)
1571-1576 István Báthory
1576-1581 Kristóf Báthory
1581-1598 Zsigmond Báthory
1598 Rudolf Habsburg


1598-1599
1599
Zsigmond Báthory (restored)
András Báthory
1599-1601 Mihály Vitéz (the Brave)
1601-1602
1602-1604
1604-1607
1607-1608
1608-1613
Zsigmond Báthory (re-restored)
Mózes Székely
István Bocskay
Zsigmond Rákóczi
Gábor Báthory
1613-1629 Gábor Bethlen

1629-1630
1630
1630-1648
1648-1658
1658
1658-1660
1659-1660
1660-1662
1661-1690
1689-1699
1692-1696
Katalin Brandenburgi
István Bethlen
György I Rákóczi
György II Rákóczi
Ferenc Rhédey
Ákos Barcsay
György II Rákóczi (restored)
János Kemény
Mihály I Apafi 
Imre Thököly *
Mihály II Apafi 
1696-1704 Lipót I Habsburg
1704-1711 Ferenc II Rákóczi 


House of Habsburg
 

1711-1740 Károly
1740-1780 Mária Terézia
1780-1790 Jószef II
1790-1792 Lipót II
1792-1835 Ferenc III
1835-1848 Ferdinánd
1848-1867 Ferenc József

Transylvania is incorporated with the kingdom of Hungary 1867

* = Imre Thököly was 1682 appointed to tributary prince of Upper Hungary by the Ottoman sultan. In 1689 he was appointed to prince of Transylvania by the sultan even though Transylvania had been occupied by Austria.
 

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