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Örjan Martinsson

Regents of Milan

Milan became a self-governing imperial city by the peace of Constance 1183. Although Milan was a republic it was usually dominated by one person, a so called signore. The political life was characterised by internal strife between the Guelfs led by the house of della Torre who supported the pope and the Ghibbellins led by the house of Visconti who supported the emperor. During the numerous wars in the 14th and 15th centuries Milan conquered several of its neighbours and became master of Lombardy. Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti purchased a ducal title from the emperor 1395 whereby Milan formally seized to be a republic. During the the Italian Wars in the 16th century Milan was constantly fought over and were often under French control. When the house of Sforza died out 1535 Milan came under the Habsburgs rule, which with the exception of two periods would last until the unification of Italy in the middle of the 19th century.

Signores of Milan

1197-1241
1247-1257
1253-1256
1257-1259
1259-1264
1263-1265
1265-1277
1277-1295
1294-1302
1302-1311
1311-1322
1322-1327

1327-1329
1329-1339
1339-1349
1349-1385
1349-1378
1349-1355
1378-1395
Paganus I della Torre
Paganus II della Torre
Manfredi Lancia
Martino della Torre
Oberto Pelavicino
Filippo della Torre
Napoleone della Torre
Ottone Visconti
Matteo I Visconti
Guido della Torre
Matteo I Visconti
(restored)
Galeazzo I Visconti

Direct rule by the Holy Roman Empire
Azzo Visconti
Luchino Visconti
Bernabň Visconti
Galeazzo II Visconti
Matteo II Visconti
Giovanni Galeazzo I Visconti
(-1402)

Duchy of Milan

House of Visconti
 

1395-1402
1402-1412
1412-1447
1447-1450
Giovanni Galeazzo I (1378-)
Giovanni Maria
Filippo Maria
Republic

Houses of Sforza and Valois
 
1450-1466
1466-1476
1476-1494
1494-1499
Francesco I
Galeazzo Maria
Giovanni Galeazzo II
Ludovico il Moro (the Black)
1499-1500
1500
Luigi (XII)
Ludovico il Moro

 
1500-1512 Luigi (XII)
1512-1515 Massimiliano
1515-1521 Francesco (I)
1521-1524 Francesco II
1524-1525 Francesco (I)
1525 Francesco II
1525-1529 Francesco (I)
1529-1535 Francesco II

House of Habsburg
 
1535-1540 Carlo I
1540-1598 Filippo I
1598-1621 Filippo II
1621-1665 Filippo III
1665-1700 Carlo I

House of Bourbon
 
1700-1706 Filippo IV

House of Habsburg
 
1706-1707 Guiseppe I
1707-1740 Carlo III
1740-1780 Maria Teresa

House of Habsburg-Lorraine
testing
1780-1790 Guiseppe II
1790-1792 Leopoldo
1792-1796 Francesco III

1796

1796-1797
1797-1802
1802-1805
1805-1814

Lombard Republic

Part of Transpadanian Republic
Part of Cisalpine Republic
Part of Italian Republic
Part of the Kingdom of Italy

Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

1814-1835 Francesco III (restored)  
1835-1848 Ferdinando  
1848-1859 Francesco Guiseppe  

France conquered Lombardy with Milan 1859
and ceded it to the kingdom of Sardinia

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