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Örjan Martinsson

Kings of Macedonia

Macedonia is the name of a region on the Balkans covering areas that are part of the present republics of Greece, Bulgaria and Macedonia. It originated from a Hellenic kingdom located in what today is northern Greece. The inhabitants were Greeks according to the history writer Herodotus. But this ethnicity was disputed by other Greeks and it was not until the forth century BC, when Macedonia had become a great power, that they with force got this recognition and was allowed to participate in the Pan-Hellenic games. The age of greatness also meant that Macedonia's territory grew to also encompass the present day republic of Macedonia. The "Greek" Macedonia however remained the core region of the kingdom until it was completely conquered by the Romans 148 BC. A migration of Slavic people during the seventh century AD into the region dramatically changed the demographic composition and sowed the seeds to the present conflict between Greece and Macedonia over the question of which people are the rightful heir to the old Macedonian kingdom.

About the foundation of the kingdom are there conflicting reports in the sources. Herodotus claimed that it was Perdikkas I who created the kingdom while Theopompos alleged that this achievement was done earlier by Karanos. All sources from the Antiquity are however in agreement that the first Macedonian royal family descended from the Greek city of Argos (which the dynasty is named after).

Argead Dynasty

808-778 f. Kr.
?
?

700-678
678-640
640-602
602-576
576-547
547-498
498-454
454-413
413-399
399
399-396
396-393
393
393
393
393-392
392-370
370-368
368-365
365-359
359-356
359-336
336-323
334-323
323-317
323-310
323-321
321-319
319-317
317-306

Karanos
Koinos
Tyrimmas

Perdikkas I
Argaios I
Filippos I
Aeropos I
Alketas I
Amyntas I
Alexandros I
Perdikkas II
Archelaos I
Krateros
Orestes and Aeropus II
Archelaos II
Amyntas II
Pausanias II
Amyntas III
Argaios II
Amyntas III (restored)
Alexandros II
Ptolemaios I
Perdikkas III
Amyntas IV
Filippos II
Alexandros o Megas (Alexander the Great)
Antipater
Filippos III Arrhidaeus
Alexandros IV
Perdikkas
Antipater
(restored)
Polyperchon
Kassandros


Antipatrid Dynasty
 
306-297
297-296
296-294

Kassandros (regent 317-306)
Filippos IV
Alexandros V and Antipater II


Different Dynasties
Ag = Antigonid, Ap = Antipatrid, P = Ptolemaic
 
Ag


P
P
Ap
Ap
294-288
288-285
288-281
281-279
279
279
279-277
Demetrios I Poliorketes (the Besieger)
Pyrrhos (the famous "Pyrrhic victor")
Lysimachos
Ptolemaios II Keraunos
Meleagros
Antipater II Etesias
Sosthenes

Antigonid Dynasty
 
277-274
274-272
272-239
239-229
229-221
221-179
179-168
168-149
149-148
148 f. Kr.
Antigonos II Gonatas
Pyrrhos (restored)
Antigonos II Gonatas (restored)
Demetrios II Aetolicus
Antigonos III Doson
Filippos V
Perseus
Partitioned by Rome into four republics
Andriskos
Macedonia become a Roman province

The Roman Empire lost control over Macedonia during the seventh century AD when Slavic people settled in the region. These Slavic areas became part of Bulgaria in the ninth century. When the Byzantine Empire conquered eastern Bulgaria 971 AD Macedonia became the core region of what remained of the Bulgarian state. In the year 1018 this part of Bulgaria was also conquered by the Byzantines. The Bulgarian state was restored 1185 after a rebellion and controlled most of Macedonia until this area was conquered by Serbia in 1330. The Serb rule of Macedonia lasted only until 1371 when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire who controlled the region until the Balkan Wars 1912-1913. This war resulted in the partitioning of Macedonia between the victorious states of Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The Serbian part of Macedonia was occupied by Bulgaria 1941-1945 and became 1991 an independent republic.