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Örjan Martinsson

Palatine Counts at the Rhine

A palatine count (Pfalzgraf) was originally an office in the Frankish kingdom and later the Holy Roman Empire, which administered the royal palaces. The palatine count of Lorraine in Aachen was 1093 granted a fief at the middle Rhine, which would evolve into one of Germany's most prominent principalities with the status of an electorate. Because there were more than one office of palatine count did those who controlled the fief at the Rhine style themselves as palatine counts at the Rhine. From 1214 were these members of the Wittelsbach house and they continued to use that title even after 1400 when there were only one remaining office of palatine count. When the Palatinate was partitioned 1410 became the part that had the status of electorate known as the Electoral Palatinate in English and Kurpfalz in German. I have used the German word in this list of regents.

1093-1095
1095-1099
1099-1105
1105-1113
1113-1129
1129-1139
Heinrich II
Heinrich III
Ludwig
Siegfried
Gottfried
Wilhelm
1139-1142
1142-1155
1156-1195
1195-1211
1211-1214
Heinrich IV Jasimirgott
Hermann III
Konrad von Hohenstaufen
Heinrich V
Heinrich VI
1214-1227
House of Wittelsbach

Ludwig I der Kelheimer

1227-1253 Otto (the Illustrious)
1253-1294 Ludwig II (the Stern)
1294-1317 Rudolf I
1317-1329 Ludwig IV
1329-1353
1353-1390
1390-1398
Rudolf II
Ruprecht I
Ruprecht II
1398-1410 Ruprecht III

The Palatinate (Pfalz) is partitioned 1410 between Ruprecht III's four sons in Kurpfalz, Oberpfalz, Pfalz-Mosbach and Pfalz-Zweibrücken.

Pfalz-Mosbach
 
Oberpfalz
(Pfalz-Amberg Line)

1410-1461
1461-1499

Otto I
Otto II
1410-1443
1443-1448
Johann
Christoffer  

Oberpfalz and Pfalz-Mosbach unites with Kurpfalz when the branches of the house of Wittelsbach that rule those territories became extinct 1499 and 1448.

Kurpfalz

Pfalz-Heidelberg Line

1410-1436
1436-1449
1449-1476
1476-1508
1508-1544
1544-1556
1556-1559
Ludwig III
Ludwig IV
Friedrich I der Siegreiche (the Victorious)
Philipp der Aufrichtige  (the Honest)
Ludwig V der Friedfertige (the Peaceful)
Friedrich II der Weise (the Wise)
Otto Heinrich


Pfalz-Simmern Line
 

1559-1576
1576-1583
1583-1610
1610-1623
Friedrich III
Ludwig VI
Friedrich IV
Friedrich V (the Winter King)
1623-1628
1628-1648
Occupied by the Emperor
Maximilian (Bavarian line)
1648-1680
1680-1685
Karl Ludwig
Karl

Pfalz-Neuburg Line
 
1685-1690 Philipp Wilhelm
1690-1716 Johann Wilhelm
1716-1742 Karl Philipp
1742- (1799) Karl Theodor

Karl Theodor inherits Bavaria 1777 whereby Kurpfalz is united with that land.

Pfalz-Zweibrücken

Zweibrücken was originally a county that had been created 1182 by Heinrich I who belonged to the Walramian dynasty. Zweibrücken was united with the Palatinate when Ruprecht II purchased the county 1385 from its present count Eberhard. When the Palatinate was divided 1410 Zweibrücken was given to Stephan as the duchy of Pfalz-Zweibrücken. His branch of the house of Wittelsbach would survive all others, but repeated partitions of his inheritance (1459, 1515, 1569 and 1604) would reduce the territory of Zweibrücken.

Pfalz-Zweibrücken Line

1410-1459
1459-1489
1489-1514
1514-1532
1532-1569
1569-1604
1604-1635
1635-1661
1661-1681
1677-1693
Stephan
Ludwig I
Alexander
Ludwig II
Wolfgang
Johann I
Johann II
Friedrich
Friedrich Ludwig
Occupied by France
1681-1697 Karl (XI)
1697-1718
1718-1731
Karl (XII)
Gustav Samuel Leopold

Pfalz-Birkenfeld Line
 
1731-1735
1735-1775
1775-1795
1795- (1825)
Christian III
Christian IV
Karl (Birkenfeld 1767-75)
Maximilian Joseph

Maximilian Joseph inherits Kurpfalz and Bavaria 1799

Pfalz-Birkenfeld

Pfalz-Birkenfeld was created when Pfalz-Zweibrücken was partitioned into five parts 1569. The Birkenfeld line was itself partitioned 1600 into Pfalz-Birkenfeld (extinct 1671) and in Pfalz-Bischweiler. The latter was partitioned 1654 in Pfalz-Bischweiler and Pfalz-Gelnhausen. The Bischweiler line inherited Birkenfeld when the older line became extinct 1671 and they also inherited the duchy of Zweibrücken in 1731. But four years later was their territory divided in a way that the line Pfalz-Gelnhausen became rulers of Birkenfeld while the Pfalz-Bischweiler line had to settle with Zweibrücken.

1569-1600
1600-1669
1600-1626
1669-1671
1671-1717
1717-1735
1735-1767
1767-1775
1775-1780
1780-1789
1789-1801

1801-1814
1814-1816
1816-1817
1817-1937
1937-1947
1947-

Karl I
Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich
Karl Otto
Christian II
Christian III
Friedrich Michael
Karl II (Zweibrücken 1775-95)
Johann
Karl Johann Ludwig
Wilhelm

Part of France
Administered by Austria and Bavaria
Part of Prussia
Part of Oldenburg
Part of Prussia
Part of Rheinland-Pfalz

The focus in this page is to show the rulers of the most important Palatine principalities. A more comprehensive record of the different branches of the Palatine house of Wittelsbach is available on this page.

= Germany
= Limburg
= Jülich-Berg
= Bavaria
= Austria
= Bohemia
= Norway
= Sweden
= Denmark