Palatine Counts at the Rhine
A palatine count (Pfalzgraf) was originally an office in the Frankish
kingdom and later the Holy Roman Empire, which administered the royal
palaces. The palatine count of Lorraine in Aachen was 1093 granted a fief
at the middle Rhine, which would evolve into one of Germany's most
prominent principalities with the status of an electorate. Because there
were more than one office of palatine count did those who controlled the
fief at the Rhine style themselves as palatine counts at the Rhine. From
1214 were these members of the Wittelsbach house and they continued to use
that title even after 1400 when there were only one remaining office of
palatine count. When the Palatinate was partitioned 1410 became the part
that had the status of electorate known as the Electoral Palatinate in English
and Kurpfalz in German. I have used the German word in this list of regents.
The Palatinate (Pfalz) is partitioned
1410 between Ruprecht III's four sons in Kurpfalz, Oberpfalz, Pfalz-Mosbach
Oberpfalz and Pfalz-Mosbach unites with Kurpfalz when the
branches of the house of Wittelsbach that rule those territories became extinct 1499 and 1448.
Karl Theodor inherits
whereby Kurpfalz is united with that land.
Zweibrücken was originally a county that had been created 1182 by
Heinrich I who belonged to the Walramian dynasty. Zweibrücken was united
with the Palatinate when Ruprecht II purchased the county 1385 from its
present count Eberhard. When the Palatinate was divided 1410 Zweibrücken was given to
Stephan as the duchy of Pfalz-Zweibrücken. His branch of the house of
Wittelsbach would survive all others, but repeated partitions of his
inheritance (1459, 1515, 1569 and 1604) would reduce the territory of Zweibrücken.
Occupied by France
Gustav Samuel Leopold
Maximilian Joseph inherits Kurpfalz
and Bavaria 1799
Pfalz-Birkenfeld was created when Pfalz-Zweibrücken was partitioned into
five parts 1569. The Birkenfeld line was itself partitioned 1600 into Pfalz-Birkenfeld (extinct 1671)
and in Pfalz-Bischweiler. The latter was partitioned 1654 in Pfalz-Bischweiler
and Pfalz-Gelnhausen. The Bischweiler line inherited Birkenfeld when the
older line became extinct 1671 and they also inherited the duchy of
Zweibrücken in 1731. But four years later was their territory divided in a
way that the line Pfalz-Gelnhausen became rulers of Birkenfeld while the Pfalz-Bischweiler
line had to settle with Zweibrücken.
Karl II (Zweibrücken 1775-95)
Karl Johann Ludwig
Part of France
Administered by Austria and Bavaria
Part of Prussia
Part of Oldenburg
Part of Prussia
Part of Rheinland-Pfalz
The focus in this page is to show the rulers of the most important
Palatine principalities. A more comprehensive record of the different
branches of the Palatine house of Wittelsbach is available on this page.