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÷rjan Martinsson

The Imperial Age

= Roman Empire 31 BC   = Conquests to AD 14  = Conquests to 37
= Conquests to 68   = Temporary conquest 12 BC-AD 9

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty 31 BC-AD 68

31 Octavian defeats Mark Antony in the battle of Actium and become the sole ruler over Rome.
30
Octavian conquers Egypt.
29
Moesia in the Balkans is incorporated to the Roman Empire.
27
Octavian formally surrender his special powers to the senate. For that he receives the honorary title Augustus from the Senate, which is the name he will be called by thereafter. In reality the republic have been dissolved and replaced by an imperial regime because Augustus retains control over the army, have the largest wealth and the popular support.
26-25
Augustus wage war in Spain.
25
King Amyntas of Galatia in Asia Minor bequeaths his kingdom to Rome. The same year an unsuccessful campaign against the Arabs is carried through.
19
Agrippa subdue the last resistance against Roman rule in Spain.
16-15
Augustusís stepsons Tiberius and Drusus push the Roman frontier forwards the river Donau, Raetia become a Roman province and the kingdoms Noricum and Thrace become Roman client states. The kingdoms are later during Claudius reign incorporated to the Empire as provinces.
13-9
Pannonia is conquered by Agrippa and Tiberius.
12-9
Drusus conquers Germany to the river Elbe.
AD 6
The Roman client king Archelaos is deposed and his kingdom is transformed into the Roman province of Judeae.
6-9
A serious insurrection in Pannonia requires the effort of 15 legions to be subdued.
9
The Germans revolt and end Roman rule when they annihilate three legions in the battle of the Teutoburger Forest.
14
Augustus dies and is succeeded by his adoptive son Tiberius.
14-16
The Roman commander Germanicus tries to win back Germany. But despite of some successes Tiberius aborts the attempt because of excessive costs.
17-24
Tacfarinas leads a rebellion against Rome in Numidia.
18
Cappadocia and commagene in Asia Minor are incorporated with the Roman Empire.
22-31
The Praetorian prefect Sejanus have a large influence over Tiberius. It leads to numerous trials, executions and suicides among prominent Romans. Sejanus himself is executed when his conspiracy against Tiberius is revealed.
37-41
Tiberius dies and is succeeded by Caligula who soon becomes insane and struck by megalomania. He his murdered by the Praetorian Guard 41 and succeeded by Claudius.
40-42
Caligula murder the Mauretanian king Ptolemaios and annex his kingdom. The people there refuse to accept the annexation and rise against the Romans who conquers the kingdom two years later and divide it into two provinces.
43
Claudius conquers southern Britain and annex Lycia et Pamphylia in Asia Minor.
46
Thrace become a Roman province.
54
Claudius dies and is succeeded by his adoptive son Nero.
53-63
War against the Parthians over Armenia. It ends with a compromise peace, the Parthians recognise Roman supremacy over Armenia but a Parthian prince becomes its king.
60-61
The Britons lead by Queen Boudicca rises against Rome. They are defeated after initial successes and Rome expands its territory in Britain.
64
A fire destroys central Rome. Nero cast the blame on the Christians who are persecuted.
65
A conspiracy against Nero is revealed, the prominent philosopher Seneca is forced to commit suicide.
66-70
A serious revolt by the Jews in Palestine is subdued by Vespasian and his son Titus.
68
Nero commits suicide when discontent with his rule have led to mutinies in the army.

= Roman Empire AD 68  
= Conquests to 96  = Conquests to 117  = Conquests to 199   = Temporary conquests

The Flavian Dynasty 69-96

69 After Neroís death the legions appoint their own generals as emperors and four of them succeed each others this year until the Flavian dynasty seize the imperial throne with Vespasian.
69-70
The Batavians led by Civilis rises against Rome in the Netherlands. The rebellion spreads to several Celtic and Germanic tribes until it is defeated by the Romans.
70
The Jewish revolt is subdued when Titus seize and destroy Jerusalem. Some pockets of resistance continue to fight the Romans until 73 when the last of them commit collective suicide in the Masada fortress.
71
Northern England is added to the Roman Empire.
74
The area between the rivers Rhine and Danube in Germany (agri decumates) is conquered.
79
Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as emperor. The cities Pompeii and Herculaneum are destroyed when the volcano Vesuvius erupts.
79-84
Agricola conquers southern Scotland, but his campaign is aborted after disturbances along the Danube frontier and the conquest is thereafter abandoned.
80
Colosseum is inaugurated.
81
Titus dies and is succeeded by his brother Domitian as emperor.
82-83 Domitian leads a campaign against the Germanic Chatti and fortifies the border in Germany.
85-88
First Dacian War. Led by their king Decebalus the Dacians in Romania challenge Romeís hegemony in the Danube region.
89
The Germanic tribes Marcomanni and Quadi invades Pannonia. A rebellion by the governor in Germania the same year leads to incrising despotic rule by Domitian.
92
A new invasion is defeated by Domitian.

The Adoptive Emperors 96-192

96 Domitian is assassinated and the Senate appoints the elderly senator Nerva as his successor. He adopts the general Trajan and is succeeded by him when he dies 98.
101-102
The Second Dacian War, Trajan defeats Decebalus.
105-107
The Third Dacian War, Decebalus does not comply with the previous peace accord and Trajan conquers his kingdom.
106
The Nabatean kingdom is incorporated with the Roman Empire as the province of Arabia.
113-117
War against the Parthians. Trajan conquers Armenia and Mesopotamia.
117
Trajan dies and is succeeded by his adoptive son Hadrian who immediately make peace with the Parthians by ceding Armenia and Mesopotamia.
122-127
Hadrianís wall is erected along the frontier in Britain.
132-135
A new rebellion by the Jews, their leader Bar Kochba claims to be the messiah.
138
Hadrian dies and succeeds by his adoptive son Antoninus Pius.
142
Antoninus Pius push the frontier forwards to southern Scotland where the Antonine wall is erected.
161
Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by his adoptive sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
161-166
War against the Parthians who occupies Syria, Armenia and Cappadocia. Lucius Verus launches a successful counter offensive and manage to occupy Mesopotamia until an outbreak of the plague forces him to conclude peace with the Parthians.
167
A terrible plague that kills one quarter of the Roman Empireís population culminates.
167-175
The First Marcomanni War. The Markomanni and Quadi crosses Danube and invade northern Italy until Marcus Aurelius manage to defeat them.
175
Avidius Cassius makes an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in Rome.
178-180
The Second Marcomanni War. Marcus Aurelius tries to secure the Empireís frontier by conquering the lands of the Marcommani and their neighbours. But when he dies 180 his son and successor Commodus abort the campaign and buy peace with the Germanic tribes.
184-185 Uprising in Britain, the frontier is moved back to Hadrianís wall.
189
Civil disturbance in Rome when rivalry in the bureaucracy causes a food shortage.
192
The incompetent Commodus who suffers from megalomania is murdered in the bath on new years eve.

The Severan Dynasty 193-235

193 The second year of four emperors. Commodus successor Pertinax is murdered by the Praetorian Guard, which sells the office of emperor to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus wins the auction but is not recognised by the legions, which instead appoint their own generals as emperors. Septimius Severus wins the civil war the following year and put the Severan dynasty on the imperial throne.
194-199
War against the Parthians. Northern Mesopotamia is conquered and Roman supremacy over Osrhoene is restored.
195-197
Septimius Severus defeats Clodius Albinus who claimed to be emperor.
208-211
An attempt to conquer Scotland is aborted when Septimius Severus dies. He succeeds by his sons Caracalla and Geta.
212
Geta is murdered by Caracalla and give the same year Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants in the Roman Empire.
213
Caracalla fights against the Alemanni, a Germanic tribal confederation. Osrhoene becomes a Roman province.
216-218
Caracalla starts an unsuccesful war against the Psrthians and his successor is forced to buy peace.
217
Caracalla is murdered Macrinus succeeds him. He in turn is murdered only after one year and the Severan dynasty is reinstated when Elagabalus becomes emperor.
222
Elagabalusís bizarre worship rituals to his sun god make the Romans to turn against him and he is murdered. Elagabalus is succeeded by his cousin Alexander Severus.
230-233
The Persians who 226 had taken over the Parthian empire invades the Roman Empire. They capture Armenia 232 but Alexander Severus repulses the attack.
231-235
The Alemanni invades Gaul. When Alexander Severus tries to buy peace with them 235 his soldiers murder him. They appoint Maximinus to emperor and he defeats the Alemanni the same year.

= The Palmyrene Empire's (260-272) greatest extent 271   = The Gallic Empireīs (260-274) greatest extent 26
= Permanent loss of territory

The Barracks Emperors 235-284

236 Maximinus fights against the Sarmatians and Dacians at the Danube.
237
The Persians invade and conquer Roman Mesopotamia.
238
Maximinus is murdered during a conflict over the throne and is succeeded by Gordian III. The Germanic Goths crosses the Danube for the first time.
242
Gordian III defeats the Persians and take back Mesopotamia.
244
Gordian III dies and is succeeded by Philip the Arab who makes peace with the Persians by ceding Mesopotamia and the supremacy over Armenia. Although it seems like the Roman troops remained there and the war is continued a few years later.
246
Philip the Arab wards off an attack by the Dacians.
249
Decius who was put in charge to handle an attack by the Goths is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers and defeats Philip the Arab. Decius starts the great persecutions against the Christians because they are accused to have abandoned their old gods and thus caused the crisis the Roman Empire is experiencing.
251
Decius is killed in battle against the Goths.
251-266
The Roman Empire is suffering from a new great plague epidemic.
253
New attacks from the Persians who sack Antioch.
254
Valerian defeats his opponents and become emperor. He goes to the offensive against the Persians. At the same time Goths, Marcomanni, Quadi, Heruli and Sarmatians invade the empire.
254-256
Valerianís son and co-emperor Gallienus lead several campaigns against the Alemanni and Franks along the Rhine.
256 The Goths are ravaging the coast of Asia Minor.
259
The Alemanni invades northern Italy but Gallienus defeats them. The same year he concludes peace with Marcomanni who have ravaged the Balkans.
260
The Roman Empire is a state of dissolution when the Persians invade and capture Valerian. The Franks ravage Gaul and Spain. These parts of the empire together with Britain appoint their own emperor (the Gallic Empire). Odenathus who rule over the semi-independent city of Palmyra take charge of Syria and fights successfully back the Persians. The persecutions against the Christians cease.
263
The Romans abandon the territory between the rivers Rhine and Danube to the Alemanni.
267
Athens is sacked by the Heruli but Gallienus defeat them on their way home. Gallienus is later murdered and Claudius II succeeds him. He then fights back the attack on Northern Italy by the Alemanni.
269
Claudius II defeats the Goths in the battle of Naissus in present day Serbia. Spain defect from the Gallic Empire and is returned to Romeís control.
269-271
Queen Zenobia (the widow of Odenathus) attack the Roman Empire and conquers r Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.
270
Vandals and Sarmatians attack Pannonia. The Alemanni, Markomanni and Juthungi are pillaging the alpine region and northern Italy. Claudius II dies of the plague and is succeeded by Aurelian who then defeats the Juthungi.
271
The Alemanni and Juthungi are again pillaging in northern Italy but Aurelian defeat them. The same year he orders the construction of a new wall around the city of Rome.
272
Aurelian defeats Zenobia and return the eastern provinces the Roman Empire. Dacia is however abandoned to the Goths.
274
The last Gallic emperor is defeated by Aurelian and the unity of the Roman Empire is restored.
275-276
Aurelian is murdered and the senate appoints Tacitus to his successor. He defeats the Goths in Asia Minor before he dies of an unknown cause.
276-284
Continuos fighting against the Franks, Alemanni, Burgundians, Vandals and Persians while emperors are getting murdered until Diocletian ascend the throne and restore order.

.

= The West Roman Empire   = The East Roman Empire   = Germanic foederatis (Franks and Visigoths)
= Lost territory 363   = Gained territory 387

The Late Empire 284-395

286 Diocletian appoints Maximian to co-emperor with responisbility over the western half of the empire. Saxon and Frankish pirates are ravaging in the English Channel. Carausisus revolt and is proclaimed as emperor in Britain and later also in northern Gaul. The Romans liberate Armenia from the Persians.
293
The Tetrarchy is introduced when two junior emperors are appointed (Galerius and Constantius). They are each given responsibility over a geographic area and are supposed to succeed the senior emperors when they resign voluntarily. Constantius capture northern Gaul from Carausius who is murdered and succeeded by Allectus as ruler over Britain.
294
Diocletian fights against the Marcomanni, Quadi and Sarmatians.
296
Constantius defeats Allectus and return Britain to Romeís control.
296-298
War against Persia. Galerius defeats the Persians and take back Mesopotamia. The border with Persia is thereby secured for almost four decades.
297
Diocletian suppress an uprising in Egypt. The same year he reorganises the empire into 101 smaller provinces grouped in 12 dioceses.
301
Price control is introduced to stop the inflation, but it is thwarted by a growing black market.
303
Diocletian reintroduce the persecutions of the Christians.
305
Diocletian and Maximian abdicates and is succeeded by their junior emperors.
306-324
Disunity among the emperors leads to civil wars, which not ends until Constantine the Great becomes the sole emperor 324.
308-309
Insurrection in the province of Africa.
313
The Milan edict of toleration end the persecutions of the Christians and Constantine the Great favour them.
325
The council of Nicaea is called by Constantine the Great to resolve theological disputes among the Christians, it condemns Arianism.
330
Constantine the Great inaugurates Constantinople, which become the capitol over the eastern half of the empire.
336-363
War over Armenia against Persia. The Persians conquer half of Roman Mesopotamia and win Armenia.
337
Constantine the Great is baptised on his deathbed. His sons who soon start to fight against each otherís succeed him.
353
Constantius II becomes sole emperor and favours arianism.
357-359
The Alemanni and Franks invade Gaul. Julian the Apostate defeats the Alemanni in the battle of Argentoratum (Strasbourg) and allows the Franks to settle in Belgium as Roman allies (foederati).
361
Julian the Apostate succeeds Constantius II as emperor. He defects from Christianity and favours the pagan religions.
363
Julian is killed in a campaign against the Persians and is succeeded by Jovian.
364
Jovian dies and is succeeded by Valentinian who appoints his brother Valens to emperor over the eastern half of the empire.
367
The Saxons who had conquered Britain is driven away by the Romans.
369
An invasion by the Alemanni is repelled and their homeland is ravaged by Romans and Burgundians.
372-375
An insurrection in Mauretania is subjugated.
375
Valentinian defeats the Quadi who had invaded Pannonia, but he dies shortly afterwards and he is succeeded by Gratian as emperor in the west. Meanwhile the age of migrations starts when the Huns arrive to Europe and subjugates the Ostrogoths north of the Black Sea.
376
The Visigoths migrate to the Roman Empire to escape the Huns.
378
Romeís treatment of the Visigoths provokes a war and they defeat a Roman army in the battle of Adrianople. Valens is killed in the battle and his succeeded by Theodosius as emperor in the east.
380
Arianism is forbidden in favour of Catholicism.
382
Theodosius make peace with the Visigoths and gives them right to settle in the Roman Empire as Roman allies (foederati).
387
Armenia is divided into a Roman and a Persian sphere of interest, the Persians gets four quarters of the country.
390
Bishop Ambrosius forces Theodosius to repent after he had ordered a massacre of 7 000 inhabitants in Thessasaloniki.
391 Paganism is forbidden when Christianity becomes the state religion of the Roman Empire.
394
Theodosius ends the conflict over the throne in the western half of the empire and becomes the sole emperor.
395
Theodosius dies and the Roman Empire is divided for the final time in two halves when his sons succeed him.

The chronology continues on the page: The Fall of Rome.