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Örjan Martinsson


The Kalmar Union

Denmark's king Olof succeed his father Håkon Magnusson as Norwegian king. But the real regent in both kingdoms is his mother Margaret.

Margaret defeat Sweden's king Albrekt of Mecklenburg and becomes the regent over Sweden. The formal union between the Scandinavian kingdoms will be created in 1397. Albrekt of Mecklenburg's supporters' occupies Gotland. The island will be used as a base for pirates and is therefore conquered by the Teutonic knights in 1398. Gotland is returned to the Kalmar union when Margaret pays the ransom for it to the Teutonic knights.

The last written proof that the Scandinavian colony on Greenland still exist is from this year. But the colony is believed to have survived until ca 1500 when it for unknown reasons perish.

Erik of Pomerania is deposed as king over the Kalmar union but he retain Gotland which again becomes a base for pirates. The union king Christoffer of Bavaria dies unexpectantly without heirs. The Kalmar union dissolves when Denmark elect Christian I as king while Sweden and Norway choose Karl Knutsson Bonde as their king.
Erik of Pomerania surrender Gotland to Christian I of Denmark. Christian I drive out Karl Knutsson Bonde from Norway and become their new king.
Karl Knutsson Bonde is deposed as king of Sweden. Christian I succeed him and restore the Kalmar union. The duke of Schleswig-Holstein dies without sons. Christian I is elected as his successor but is forced to compensate the heir of Holstein with a considerable amount of money. Christian I:s poor economy forces him to introduce new taxes. The discontent in Sweden leads to a rebellion that deposes him as king over Sweden. The island of Öland remains in Danish hands.
Christian I pawn the Orkney- and Shetland islands to the king of Scotland as compensation for an unpaid dowry. The Danish-Norwegian king Hans grants his brother Frederik a hereditary duchy in Schleswig-Holstein.
Hans succeeds after many years of negotiations to be elected as king over Sweden. The Kalmar union is thereby restored for the second time. Discontent with Hans leads to rebellion that depose him as king. Hans and later his son Christian II tries then to take back the Swedish throne in a long war that will not end until 1520.
Christian II succeeds after a long war and conquers Sweden. The Kalmar union is restored for the third time. Christian II:s bloody purges in Sweden leads to wide scale popular uprisings led by Gustav Vasa. He dissolves the Kalmar union for the third and final time.

Read also about Denmark's border changes during the New age
or about Sweden's border changes during the Vasa-age.