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Örjan Martinsson

Finland

The first Swedish crusade in Finland conquers the western parts of the country. The crusade may have been preceded by colonisation. Swedish peasants are colonising Ångermanland, Österbotten and Nyland. The Swedish grip on Finland is strengthen. A second crusade leads to the conquest of the interior part of Finland.
The third crusade conquers the western parts of Carelia from the republic of Novgorod. The peace with Novgorod in 1323 will establish a border that will remain official until 1595. The colonisation in the north pass the official border from 1323 King Gustav Vasa grants his younger son Johan in 1556 a hereditary duchy that is practically an independent state. The duchy is enlarged the following year with a part of Nyland.
Erik XIV abolishes his brother Johan's duchy as a response to his intimate connections with Poland. The Finnish border is moved east and Sweden's possession of Estonia is recognised by Russia in the peace of Teusina. Ingria and Kexholm county is ceded by Russia at the peace of Stolbova.
The great northern war ends when Sweden accept the loss of Estonia,, Livonia, Ingria and southern Carelia to Russia. A failed attempt to take back lost territory results in the loss of an additional part of Finland to Russia. A treaty with Denmark-Norway settles the disputed northern border.
Russia conquers Finland. Under Russian sovereignty is Finland transformed into an autonomous grand principality. Its territory is expanded 1812 and 1833. Finland declare its independence in response to the Russian defeat in world war one and the communist revolution
Finland is recognised as an independent state by the Soviet union and incorporates the Petsamo region. Finland is forced to cede Carelia, Salla and a part of the Petsamo region to the Soviet union after the winter war. Finland participates in the German invasion of the Soviet union. The remaining part of the Petsamo region is lost in the following peace.


See also similar pages about Sweden, Denmark and Norway.